早稲田大学スポーツ科学 傾向対策解答解説2019

早稲田大学スポーツ科学 傾向対策解答解説2019

早稲田大学スポーツ科学 傾向対策解答解説2019

早稲田大学スポーツ科学 傾向対策解答解説2019


早稲田大学スポーツ科学部の英語過去問2019年解答・解説・全訳です。早稲田大学受験生の入試対策のためにプロ家庭教師が出題傾向を分析実況します。


【英語の試験構成 長文3本+文法2本 読解力+文法力】
早稲田大学スポーツ科学部の英語の試験構成は、伝統的に長文読解3問(説明文3問)+文法2問(アクセント無)で安定しています。読解力と文法力がそれぞれ区別して評価されます。

【英語の出典 スポーツ科学系大半】
早稲田大学スポーツ科学部の英語の出典は、スポーツ科学についての文章が大半です。スポーツにまつわる身体科学・競技運営・歴史文化を探求する文章が出題されます。スポーツ科学の基本用語を日本語で理解したら、英語でもどのような用語で書かれているか押さえておきたいです。

【プロ家庭教師 スポーツ科学対策講座】
早稲田大学スポーツ科学部への合格対策カリキュラムをプロ家庭教師に指導依頼できます。


【大学】:早稲田大学
【学部】:スポーツ科学
【試験日程】:02月14日
【試験会場】:早稲田試験場・西早稲田試験場・戸山試験場から指定される
【募集定員】:250名
【志願者数】:3500+名
【試験配点】:75点/183点満点
【試験時間】:90分
【検定料金】:35000円
【必要単語】:5000語+
【出題形式】:適語補充+文章理解+正誤文法
【解答形式】:記号選択(マークシート)
【出題分野】:スポーツ科学 生物学 社会学
【試験年度】:2019年


【大問】:1
【形式】:適語補充+文章理解
【表題】:科学実験によると運動は身体にも心にも良い Exercise is good for your body and your mind, study says
【作者】:マリティア・モーリエ Maritza Moulite
【対策】:説明文。長文を読み進めながら適語補充し、まとめて内容理解が問われます。文章内容は、運動の効果を科学的に説明したものです。運動の大事な要素として、頻度・強度・年齢などが検討されていますので、ていねいに読解しましょう。
【用語】:健康と運動 精神衛生 運動の強度と頻度
【目安時間】:30分


【大問】:2
【形式】:適語補充+文章理解
【表題】:人間になる足指の大きさは霊長類の起源に関係する Being human Big toe clung on longest to primate origins.
【作者】:Angus Davison
【対策】:説明文。長文を読み進めながら適語補充し、まとめて内容理解が問われます。文章内容は、人間身体の足指について、霊長類からの進化の視点で説明したものです。人類とその他の霊長類との違いは、直立二足歩行であり、足指の進化によって可能になったと考えられています。人間の身体機能は、どのような歴史があって現在のようになったのか、ていねいに読解しましょう。
【用語】:直立二足歩行 サルからの進化 足指
【目安時間】:20分

【大問】:3
【形式】:適語補充+文章理解
【表題】:中国はワールドカップで試合をしないが利益は得る China Won't Play in This World Cup It Still Hopes to Profit
【作者】:ニューヨークタイムス The New York Times
【対策】:説明文。長文を読み進めながら適語補充し、まとめて内容理解が問われます。文章内容は、ワールドカップ運営のために、どのような経済事情があるのか、中国企業のスポンサー活動とともにまとめた記事です。スポーツは競技・選手育成に注目が当たりがちですが、運営・開催・広告などの視点でも理解できるようになりたいです。
【用語】:ワールドカップ スポンサー 広告収入
【目安時間】:20分

【大問】:4
【形式】:適語補充
【表題】:ーーー
【作者】:ーーー
【対策】:文法問題。文章中の空欄に適語補充します。構文の知識が求められ、文章全体をひととおり読んでから解答しましょう。接続詞や副詞構文は重点対策しておきましょう。
【用語】:接続詞 強調構文 統治構文
【目安時間】:10分


【大問】:5
【形式】:正誤文法
【表題】:ー
【作者】:ー
【対策】:文法問題。文章中の誤った表現を指摘します。英文法の正確な知識が求められ、「なぜその文法を用いるのか」、細部まで点検しながら解答しましょう。時制や分詞は重点対策しておきましょう。
【用語】:時制 分詞 冠詞
【目安時間】:10分


早稲田スポーツ 2019問題1


【大問1 読解問題】

Read the following passage and answer the questions below.

Paragraph1 The benefits of exercise are widely known: it helps you live longer and lowers the risk of heart disease, stroke, and diabetes. A new study published Wednesday in The Lancet Psychiatry journal suggests that when done in moderation, it leads to better mental health as well.

Paragraph2 The researchers analyzed responses from 1.2 million adults in the United States taken from a US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention survey given in 2011, 2013, and 2015. The average number of days of poor mental health per person in the past month was around 3.4, according to the study. Those who reported exercising had about 1.5, or 43percent , fewer days of "bad self-reported mental health" in the past month compared to those who did not exercise. Poor mental health was reported in the study as stress, depression, and trouble with emotions.

Paragraph3 "I think in comparison to all other treatments, when a patient successfully exercises at the right dose, there is a sense of self-efficacy and confidence that the patient develops that is absolutely also a remarkably positive thing," said Dr. Madhukar Trivedi at UT Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas. He was not involved with the study but recently published a paper in Journal of American Medical Association Psychiatry linking midlife fitness with lower risk of depression.

Paragraph4 "I think it's a huge deal," said Adam Chekroud, an author of the study and Assistant Professor of Psychiatry at Yale University. "Even just walking three times a week seems to give people better mental health than not exercising at all. I think from a public health perspective, it's pretty important because it shows that we can have the potential for having a pretty big impact on mental health for a lot of people."

Paragraph5 The sweet spot for exercising was found to be 45-minute sessions three to five times a week. There wasn't a big difference in benefit for exercising beyond 90 minutes in a session — until one hit the three-hour mark. After that, there appeared to be worse mental health associated with those people compared to others who did not exercise at all. "I think it makes sense," Chekroud said. "If you're not exercising enough, maybe you're not putting your body through the intensity and through the challenges that it needs to stimulate those biological changes in the brain. And on the high end, anecdotally we hear a lot about people who get addicted to exercise or maybe you're kind of running yourself into the ground."

Paragraph6 Though all forms of exercise resulted in better mental health compared to doing nothing, the strongest association was found in people who played popular team sports (a 22% lower mental health burden), cycling (22%), and other aerobic and gym activities (20%). Even completing household chores led to about a 10% drop in days of poor mental health in a month, the researchers found. "Exercise in group settings could have a slightly higher benefit than exercise alone," Trivedi said. "There's not enough evidence to be very strong but that could be what happened."

Paragraph7 As for cycling, Chekroud, who is also chief scientist at Spring Health, a mental health company based in New York that provides mental health services to large employers and an avid cyclist himself, said, "There's... the biological benefit of exercise. And you'll have increases in your respiratory rate and your heart rate and that kind of thing. But also, it's an opportunity where you're not working for a relatively long period of time and you get to think things through, perhaps reevaluate situations that happen in your life."

Paragraph8 The authors adjusted for various physical and sociodemographic factors like age, race, gender, marital status, socioeconomic status, education, self-reported physical health, and previous diagnosis of depression. Still, the improvement seen from exercise was more than what could be seen from any other modifiable social or demographic factor such as education, body mass index or household income.


Maritza Moulite. Exercise is good for your body and your mind, study says




(1) Choose the best way to complete the sentences about Paragraphs1 to 8

1 In paragraph1 the writer mainly
2 In paragraph2 the writer mainly
3 In paragraph3 the writer mainly
4 In paragraph4 the writer mainly
5 In paragraph5 the writer mainly
6 In paragraph6 the writer mainly
7 In paragraph7 the writer mainly
8 In paragraph8 the writer mainly


A addresses a newly discovered benefit of exercise along with other well-known benefits.

B analyzes the various benefits of exercise by citing the opinion of one author of the study.

C compares different types of activities and their impact on mental health.

D defines the key concept of the study, poor mental health, and explains what it involves.

E describes the impacts of other variables that could affect one's mood.

F emphasizes the significance of the study by explaining why the study is important.

G explains how much exercise generates the best outcome and why.

H explains how the study was conducted and what it discovered as a result.

I explores why some people who get addicted to exercise develop worse mental health.

J investigates why team sports are more beneficial than household chores for mental health.

K provides an overvien,v Of the study that Dr. Madhukar Trivedi had conducted.

L refers to the opinion Of an expert in a similar field Who did not participate in the prsent study.



(2) Choose the best answer for each question.

1 Which benefit of exercise is NOT mentioned in the passage?

A greater longevity
B higher respiratory rate
C increased confidence
D reduced weight


2 How long should one engage in exercise per session to gain the maximum benefit?

A an hour and a half
B than three hours
C three hours
D three quarters of an hour


3 Which form of exercise most contributes to the improvement of mental health?

A group sports
B gymnastics
C household chores
D walking


(3) Choose the ONE way to complete each of these sentences, which relates to the underlined words in the passage.

1 Here "in moderation" means

A competitively.
B continually.
C excesively.
D reasonably.


2 Here "avid" means

A apathetic.
B joyful.
C keen.
D trivial.




早稲田スポーツ 2019問題1解答


【大問1 読解問題 解答】

(1)
1 
2 
3 
4 
5 
6 
7 
8 

(2)
1 
2 
3 

(3)
1 
2 

早稲田スポーツ 2019問題1解説


【大問1 読解問題 解説】

説明文。長文を読み進めながら適語補充し、まとめて内容理解が問われます。文章内容は、運動の効果を科学的に説明したものです。運動の大事な要素として、頻度・強度・年齢などが検討されていますので、ていねいに読解しましょう。


【重要表現】

the Lancet Psychiatry:「the Lancet」は週刊の査読制医学雑誌。世界五大医学雑誌のひとつ。1823年にイギリスで創刊されたが、1996年にウエブ版「TheLancet.com」が立ち上げられた。雑誌名のLancetとは手術用メスの一種であり、また西洋建築の「ランセット窓」から「光を取り入れる」という意味合いもある。Psychiatryは精神科。査読とは、研究者が学術雑誌に論文を投稿した際に同じ分野の研究者や専門家から評価を受けること。この結果によって掲載の可否が決まる。

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention(CDC):アメリカ合衆国ジョージア州アトランタにある感染症対策の総合研究所。1946年創設の連邦政府機関。多くの文献やデータをもとに発表されるCDCの論文の内容はその信頼性の高さから、アメリカ国内に留まらず世界中に影響力を持ち、いわゆる「世界基準」と見做されている。

sweet spot:スイートスポットとは、テニスラケットやゴルフクラブなどの最適打点。そこに当たると最も有効な打球となる。この場合は、メンタルヘルス向上に最も効果のある運動の時間と頻度について述べている。

anecdotally: anecdoteは逸話。副詞として使われると、「逸話として述べると」「ついでの話として付け加えると」「このような話を聞いたのだが」などの意味になる。

on the high end: 製品ラインナップ中で最上級の商品やそのクラスを「ハイエンド」と呼び、特にPCやオーディオ機器、携帯電話などによく使われる表現。ここでは、「運動を過剰に行ってしまう上限の人たち」の状態を指している。

you're kind of running yourself into the ground:”run yourself into the ground”=to make yourself very tired by working too much (Cambidge Dictionaryより)つまり、「何かをやりすぎて自分を疲れさせてしまう」という意味のくだけた表現である。

早稲田スポーツ 2019問題1完成文


【大問1 読解問題  完成文】

Paragraph1 The benefits of exercise are widely known: it helps you live longer and lowers the risk of heart disease, stroke, and diabetes. A new study published Wednesday in The Lancet Psychiatry journal suggests that when done in moderation, it leads to better mental health as well.

Paragraph2 The researchers analyzed responses from 1.2 million adults in the United States taken from a US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention survey given in 2011, 2013, and 2015. The average number of days of poor mental health per person in the past month was around 3.4, according to the study. Those who reported exercising had about 1.5, or 43percent , fewer days of "bad self-reported mental health" in the past month compared to those who did not exercise. Poor mental health was reported in the study as stress, depression, and trouble with emotions.

Paragraph3 "I think in comparison to all other treatments, when a patient successfully exercises at the right dose, there is a sense of self-efficacy and confidence that the patient develops that is absolutely also a remarkably positive thing," said Dr. Madhukar Trivedi at UT Southwestern Medical Center in Dallas. He was not involved with the study but recently published a paper in Journal of American Medical Association Psychiatry linking midlife fitness with lower risk of depression.

Paragraph4 "I think it's a huge deal," said Adam Chekroud, an author of the study and Assistant Professor of Psychiatry at Yale University. "Even just walking three times a week seems to give people better mental health than not exercising at all. I think from a public health perspective, it's pretty important because it shows that we can have the potential for having a pretty big impact on mental health for a lot of people."

Paragraph5 The sweet spot for exercising was found to be 45-minute sessions three to five times a week. There wasn't a big difference in benefit for exercising beyond 90 minutes in a session --- until one hit the three-hour mark. After that, there appeared to be worse mental health associated with those people compared to others who did not exercise at all. "I think it makes sense," Chekroud said. "If you're not exercising enough, maybe you're not putting your body through the intensity and through the challenges that it needs to stimulate those biological changes in the brain. And on the high end, anecdotally we hear a lot about people who get addicted to exercise or maybe you're kind of running yourself into the ground."

Paragraph6 Though all forms of exercise resulted in better mental health compared to doing nothing, the strongest association was found in people who played popular team sports (a 22% lower mental health burden), cycling (22%), and other aerobic and gym activities (20%). Even completing household chores led to about a 10% drop in days of poor mental health in a month, the researchers found. "Exercise in group settings could have a slightly higher benefit than exercise alone," Trivedi said. "There's not enough evidence to be very strong but that could be what happened."

Paragraph7 As for cycling, Chekroud, who is also chief scientist at Spring Health, a mental health company based in New York that provides mental health services to large employers and an avid cyclist himself, said, "There's... the biological benefit of exercise. And you'll have increases in your respiratory rate and your heart rate and that kind of thing. But also, it's an opportunity where you're not working for a relatively long period of time and you get to think things through, perhaps reevaluate situations that happen in your life."

Paragraph8 The authors adjusted for various physical and sociodemographic factors like age, race, gender, marital status, socioeconomic status, education, self-reported physical health, and previous diagnosis of depression. Still, the improvement seen from exercise was more than what could be seen from any other modifiable social or demographic factor such as education, body mass index or household income.

早稲田スポーツ 2019問題1全訳


【大問1 読解問題  全訳】

パラグラフ1  運動の利点は広く知られている。寿命が伸び、心臓病、脳卒中、糖尿病のリスクを下げることことができるという利点である。水曜日に「ランセット・サイカイアトリー」誌に発表された新しい研究は、運動が適度に行われれば精神面の健康を改善することもできると示唆している。

パラグラフ2  この論文の研究者たちは、2011年、2013年、2015年にアメリカ疾病管理予防センターが実施した調査に対する米国の成人120万人の回答を取り上げて分析した。調査によると、過去1か月に精神的健康状態の悪かった日数は一人当たり平均でおよそ3.4日であった。運動をしたと報告した人の精神状態が悪かったのは約1.5日で、運動をしなかった人と比較して、過去1か月に「精神状態が悪かったと自己申告した」日数が43%少ない。この研究では悪い精神状態として、ストレス、うつ病、および感情面の不調が報告されている。

パラグラフ3  「患者が適度な運動を正しく行う時に患者に自助効力といった感覚と自信が生まれ、それは他のどの治療法と比較しても明らかに著しくすばらしいことだと思う」とダラスのテキサス大学サウスウエスト医療センターのマドゥカル・トリヴェディ博士が述べている。彼はこの研究には関わっていなかったが、最近中年のフィットネスとうつ病のリスク低下を関連付ける論文をアメリカ医師会精神医学雑誌に発表した。

パラグラフ4  「それは大したものだ」と、この研究の著者の一人でエール大学の精神医学助教授であるアダム・チェクロードは述べた。 「週に3回歩くだけでも、運動しないよりもメンタルヘルスが向上するようだ。公衆衛生の観点から、多くの人のメンタルヘルスにかなり大きな影響を与える可能性があることを示しているので、とても重要だと思う。」

パラグラフ5  運動のスイートスポットは、1回45分間のセッションを週に3回から5回行うことであるとわかった。1回に90分を超えて運動しても、3時間に達するまでは効果に大きな差は見られなかった。それ以上になると、全く運動しなかった人と比較して精神状態により悪い影響が現れた。「それは理にかなっていると思う」とチェクロードは言った。 「十分な運動をしていない場合は、脳内の生物学的変化を促すのに必要な強度やチャレンジの中に身体を置いていない可能性がある。そして、極端にやりぎた場合、エクササイズ中毒になったとか、ただ単に自分を疲れさせているようなもの、といった話を耳にする。」

パラグラフ6  どんな形態の運動でも、何もしない場合に比べて精神的健康が向上したが、人気のあるチームスポーツ(22% 精神的健康負担を軽減する)、サイクリング(22%)、およびその他の有酸素運動およびジムの活動を行った人(20%)に向上と最も強い関連性が見られた。家事をきちんと済ませるだけでも1か月で精神的健康状態の悪い日が約10%減少する、と研究者たちは発見した。 「グループで行うスポーツは、一人で行うものよりわずかに高い効果をもたらすことができた」とトリヴェディ氏は述べている。 「それを裏付ける十分な証拠はないが、とにかくそのような結果となっている」

パラグラフ7  幅広い雇用主にメンタルヘルスサービスを提供しているニューヨーク本拠のスプリング・ヘルス社でチーフ・サイエンティストを務めてもいるチェクロードは、彼自身熱心なサイクリストであるが、サイクリングについて「つまり・・運動の生物学的効果がある。呼吸数、心拍数といったものの増加も見られるが、また、それほど長時間働いていない状態で物事の全体を考える機会、おそらく自分の人生に起きる状況を再評価する機会にもなるのである」

パラグラフ8  著者たちは、年齢、人種、性別、婚姻状況、社会経済的状況、教育、自己申告による身体的健康、これまでにうつ病の診断を受けたことがあるかどうかなど、さまざまな身体的および社会人口学的要因によって結果を調整した。 それでも、運動から得られる改善は、教育、肥満度指数、家計収入など、他の修正可能などんな社会的または人口統計学的要因から得られる改善よりも大きかった。


早稲田スポーツ 2019問題2



【大問2 読解問題】

Read the following passage and answer the questions below.

(A)As our early ancestors began to walk on two legs, they would also have hung about in trees, using their feet to grasp branches. They walked differently on the ground, but were still able to move around quite efficiently. The rigid big toe that eventually evolved gives efficient push-off power during walking and running. These findings have been published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

In this new study, scientists made 3D scans of the toe bone joints from living and fossil human relatives, including primates such as apes and monkeys, and then compared them to modem day humans. They overlaid this information onto an evolutionary tree, revealing the timing and sequence of events that produced the human forefoot.

The main finding is that the current shape of the bones in the big toe, or "hallux" in anatomical language, must have evolved quite late in comparison with the rest of the bones (B)that they investigated.

In an interview with the BBC, iead author of the study Dr Peter Fernandez, from Marquette University in Milwaukee, said: "Our ability to efficiently walk and run on two feet, or be 'bipedal,' is a crucial feature that enabled humans to become what they are today. For everything (C)to work together, the foot bones first had to evolve to accommodate the unique biomechanical demands of bipedalism."

He then said: 'The big toe is mechanically very important for walking. In our study, we showed that it did not reach its modern form until considerably later than the other toes."

When asked whether the rigid big toe evolved last because it is most or least important, Dr Fernandez commented: "It might have been last because it was the hardest to change. We also think there was a compromise. The big toe could still be used for grasping, (D)as our ancestors spent a fair amount of their time in the trees, before becoming fully committed to walking on the ground."

He added: "Modern humans have increased the stability of the joint to put the toe in an orientation that is useful for walking, but the foot is no longer dextrous like an ape." The reason that our ancestors stood upright and then walked on two feet is still a mystery, but there are plenty of ideas. Scientists think that walking may have evolved, either because it freed our hands to carry tools, or because climate change led to a loss of forests, or that overhead arms can be used to support walking on two legs along thin branches.

Studies such as this new one show that early human ancestors must have been able to walk upright for millions of years, since the 4.4 million-year-old fossil Ardipithecus ramidus, but that they did not fully transition to a modern walk until much later, perhaps in closer relatives within our own group, Homo. This new study, alongside other work, now confirms that early walking humans, or "hominins," still used their feet to grasp objects.

Dr William Harcourt-Smith from City University of New York, who was not involved in this study, said: "They are suggesting that one of the earliest hominins, Ardipithecus, was already adapting in a direction away from the predicted morphology of the last common ancestor of chimps and modern humans, but not 'towards' modern humans. To me! this implies that there were several lineages within hominins that were likely experimenting with bipedalism in different ways to each other."

Professor Fred Spoor, an expert in human anatomy at the Natural History Museum, London, said: It was a bit of a shock when hominins were found that have a grasping, or opposable, big toe, as this was thought to be incompatible with effective bipedalism. This work shows that different parts of the foot can have different functions. When a big toe is opposable, you can still function properly as a biped."

The scientists involved say that this work shows that early hominin feet had a mixed and versatile set of functions. Becoming human was not a giant step, but a series of gradual changes, with some of the last and arguably most important changes being made to big toes. Peter Fernandez said that they would like to conduct similar analyses on the remaining bones of the forefoot, in order to fully characterise the changes involved in the evolution of bipedal walking.

Angus Davison. Being human Big toe clung on longest to primate origins.




(1) Choose the ONE way to complete each of these sentences that is NOT correct according to the passage.


1 Scientists have found that

A our big toe was one of the last parts of the foot to evolve. 
B the evolution of the forefoot to walk didn't take place at one time but little by little. 
C the reason for bipedalism is that our big toe developed last in the forefoot. 
D the shape and in flexibility of our big toe enabled us to walk and run effectively.


2 Early humans

A could grasp branches because the function of their feet was not limited just to walking.
B could have been capable of walking but in a different way from our direct ancestors.
C had a big toe that could face and touch the other toes on the same foot.
D had a forefoot that functioned similarly to modern humans and other primates like chimps.


3 Characteristics of modern humans include the following:

A we have almost the same shape of big toe as early humans in order to perform different functions.
B we have developed the mechanism of our forefoot physiologically important for standing upright.
C we have harder bones in our big toe in order to grip the ground to walk.
D we have stiffer joints in our toes than our close relatives did to enable us to walk on two legs.


4 A researcher

A believed that the rigid big toe evolved last because it is the least important to walk on two legs.
B expressed interest in investigating other bones to figure out the reasons for bipedalism in human
beings.
C pointed out that early humans walked in a different way from other primates.
D was surprised that humans had big toes not suitable for walking.


(2) Choose the ONE way to complete each Of these sentences, which relates to the words and phrases.

1 Here "overlaid" means

A added.
B covered.
C located.
D provided.


2 Here "orientation" means

A accumulation.
B angle.
C evolution.
D introduction.


3 Here "morphology" means

A function.
B structure.
C trend.
D use.


4 Here "incompatible with" means

A at odds with.
B consistent with.
C no use to
D similar to.


5 Here "versatile" means

A complex.
B fixed.
C subsidiary.
D variable.



(3) Choose the ONE item that is used in the grammatically closest way to the underlined words (A), (B), (C), and (D)

(A)
1 As Chris was professional, she was disqualified from taking part in the Olympics.
2 As we reached the top of Mt. Frazer, it was difficult to breathe.
3 One must advance in modesty as one advances in knowledge.
4 They are endeavoring to disguise this fact much as President Nilsson did in the early 1970s.


(B)
1 Even the wisest man cannot predict most of the things that will happen to him.
2 Jay solved in five minutes a problem that I had pondered for two days.
3 The fact that the murdered man had my address in his notebook does not pmve anything.
4 There was such a big crowd that we couldn't even get to the box office.


(C)
1 The kidnappers are thought to have been hiding in this territory.
2 I would like you to sit down and listen to me carefully.
3 It might be hard to play baseball in such a mountainous country as this.
4 Sydney patted his breast pocket to make sure his wallet was in place.


(D)
1 Hidden as it was by a clump of trees, the tomb of the king was difficult to find.
2 Just as some people are born artists, so some are born sportsman.
3 Leave it as it is.
4 Much as we resemble one another, we are none of us exactly alike.

早稲田スポーツ 2019問題2解答


【大問2 読解問題 解答】

(1)
1 
2 
3 
4 


(2)
1 
2 
3 
4 

(3)
A 
B 
C 
D 

早稲田スポーツ 2019問題2解説


【大問2 読解問題 解説】

説明文。長文を読み進めながら適語補充し、まとめて内容理解が問われます。

文章内容は、人間身体の足指について、霊長類からの進化の視点で説明したものです。人類とその他の霊長類との違いは、直立二足歩行であり、足指の進化によって可能になったと考えられています。人間の身体機能は、どのような歴史があって現在のようになったのか、ていねいに読解しましょう。


【重要表現】

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences:Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America(略称PNAS) 「米国科学アカデミー紀要」。1914年に創刊された米国科学アカデミーの総合科学誌。印刷版は週刊で発行されていたが2018年末に廃止、現在はオンライン版が日刊で配信されている。

an evolutionary tree:系統樹。生物の進化の道筋を樹木のような形で描いた図。

We also think there was a compromise. :この場合、「妥協」とは地面の上での完全な二足歩行能力を得るためには、諦めなくてはならない別の能力があったということ。つまり足で枝を掴んで樹上を楽に移動できるなど、これまで足が持っていた器用な働きを捨てることにより、足のつま先の骨の形が今日のものへと進化することができたという意味であろう。

a grasping, or opposable, big toe: 「拇指対向性」とは普通手の親指が他の指と向き合うことができる状態を言う。親指が他の指と向かい合うことができるから、親指と他の指との間に物を挟んで掴むことができる。

早稲田スポーツ 2019問題2完成文


【大問2 読解問題  完成文】

As our early ancestors began to walk on two legs, they would also have hung about in trees, using their feet to grasp branches. They walked differently on the ground, but were still able to move around quite efficiently. The rigid big toe that eventually evolved gives efficient push-off power during walking and running. These findings have been published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.

In this new study, scientists made 3D scans of the toe bone joints from living and fossil human relatives, including primates such as apes and monkeys, and then compared them to modern day humans. They overlaid this information onto an evolutionary tree, revealing the timing and sequence of events that produced the human forefoot.

The main finding is that the current shape of the bones in the big toe, or "hallux" in anatomical language, must have evolved quite late in comparison with the rest of the bones that they investigated.

In an interview with the BBC, lead author of the study Dr Peter Fernandez, from Marquette University in Milwaukee, said: "Our ability to efficiently walk and run on two feet, or be 'bipedal,' is a crucial feature that enabled humans to become what they are today. For everything to work together, the foot bones first had to evolve to accommodate the unique biomechanical demands of bipedalism."

He then said: 'The big toe is mechanically very important for walking. In our study, we showed that it did not reach its modern form until considerably later than the other toes."

When asked whether the rigid big toe evolved last because it is most or least important, Dr Fernandez commented: "It might have been last because it was the hardest to change. We also think there was a compromise. The big toe could still be used for grasping, as our ancestors spent a fair amount of their time in the trees, before becoming fully committed to walking on the ground."

He added: "Modern humans have increased the stability of the joint to put the toe in an orientation that is useful for walking, but the foot is no longer dextrous like an ape." The reason that our ancestors stood upright and then walked on two feet is still a mystery, but there are plenty of ideas. Scientists think that walking may have evolved, either because it freed our hands to carry tools, or because climate change led to a loss of forests, or that overhead arms can be used to support walking on two legs along thin branches.

Studies such as this new one show that early human ancestors must have been able to walk upright for millions of years, since the 4.4 million-year-old fossil Ardipithecus ramidus, but that they did not fully transition to a modern walk until much later, perhaps in closer relatives within our own group, Homo. This new study, alongside other work, now confirms that early walking humans, or "hominins," still used their feet to grasp objects.

Dr William Harcourt-Smith from City University of New York, who was not involved in this study, said: "They are suggesting that one of the earliest hominins, Ardipithecus, was already adapting in a direction away from the predicted morphology of the last common ancestor of chimps and modern humans, but not 'towards' modern humans. To me, this implies that there were several lineages within hominins that were likely experimenting with bipedalism in different ways to each other."

Professor Fred Spoor, an expert in human anatomy at the Natural History Museum, London, said: "It was a bit of a shock when hominins were found that have a grasping, or opposable, big toe, as this was thought to be incompatible with effective bipedalism. This work shows that different parts of the foot can have different functions. When a big toe is opposable, you can still function properly as a biped."

The scientists involved say that this work shows that early hominin feet had a mixed and versatile set of functions. Becoming human was not a giant step, but a series of gradual changes, with some of the last and arguably most important changes being made to big toes. Peter Fernandez said that they would like to conduct similar analyses on the remaining bones of the forefoot, in order to fully characterise the changes involved in the evolution of bipedal walking.

早稲田スポーツ 2019問題2全訳


【大問2 読解問題  全訳】

私たちの原初の祖先が二本足で立って歩き始めた頃、彼らは足を使って枝を掴み木々の間を行き来することもあっただろう。地面の上では異なる歩き方をしたが、それでもかなり効率的に動き回ることが出来た。その結果、硬く進化した親指が、歩いたり走ったりする際に効率的に蹴り出す力(=プッシュオフ)を与えるようになった。このような研究結果が「米国科学アカデミー紀要」に掲載されている。

この新しい研究で、科学者たちは、類人猿や猿などの霊長類を含む生きている、あるいは化石となった人類のつま先の骨関節の3Dスキャンを行い、それを現代の人間と比較した。そしてこの情報を系統樹に重ね、人間の前足を生み出した出来事の起こった時期と連鎖を明らかにした。

主要な発見は、足の親指ー解剖学用語では「ハルクス」と言うーの骨は、彼らが調査した他の骨と比べるとかなり遅れて現在の形へと進化したに違いないということである。

この研究の筆頭著者であるミルウォーキーのマーケット大学ピーター・フェルナンデス博士は、BBCのインタビューで次のように語った。「二本足で効率的に歩いたり走ったりする能力、つまり『二足歩行』になり得たことは、人間が今日のようになるのための重要な特性です。すべてが同時に機能するためには、まず足の骨を進化させて、二足歩行固有の生体力学的要求に対応する必要があったのです。」

「足の親指は、歩くための機械としてとても重要です。私たちの研究では、足の親指のつま先は他の指のつま先よりも相当遅れて現代の形になったことがわかりました。」

硬い足の親指のつま先が最後に進化したのは、最も重要であるからなのか、あるいは一番重要度が低いからなのかと尋ねられて、フェルナンデス博士は次のように述べた。「変化するのが最も難しかったから最後になった可能性があります。妥協もあったと考えています。私たちの祖先が完全に地面の上を歩くようになるまでには、樹上でかなりの時間を過ごしていたので、足の親指のつま先をまだ枝を掴むために使うことができたでしょう。」

「現代の人間は、歩行に有利な向きにつま先が付くよう関節を固定させてしまって、足はもう猿のように器用ではなくなってしまった」と博士は付け加えた。私たちの祖先が直立して二本足で歩くようになった理由はいまだ謎で、様々な見解がある。道具を運ぶために手を解放したから、あるいは気候変動で森林を失ってしまったから歩行を進化させた、とか、細い枝に沿って二本足で歩く時に頭上に腕を乗せることで歩行を支えることができた、と考えている科学者もいる。

この新しい研究に類する他の研究においても、初期の人間の祖先が、440万年前の化石アルディピテクス・ラミドゥス以来何百万年もの間直立して歩けていたものの、かなり後の時代まで、おそらく私たち自身のグループの内、より近い霊長類ホモの時代になるまで、現代の歩行へと完全には移行しなかったことがわかっている。この新しい研究は、他の研究と共に、初期の歩行する人間、つまり「ヒト族」は物を掴むためにまだ足を使っていたのだということを確認したのである。

ニューヨーク市立大学のウィリアム・ハーコート=スミス博士は、この研究には関わってはいなかったが、次のように述べている。「最も初期のヒト族の1つであるアルディピテクス属が、チンパンジー属と現代のヒト属が最後に共有した祖先が進むと予測される形態から離れた方向へと既に適応しつつあったこと、そしてそれが現代のヒトに「向かって」いなかったことが彼らの研究からわかる。これは、ヒト属の中には互いに異なる方法で二足歩行を験しているいくつかの系統があったということではないか、と私は考えているのです。」

ロンドン自然史博物館の人体解剖学の専門家であるフレッド・スプーア教授は、次のように述べている:「物を掴むことができる、つまり拇指対向性の足の親指を持つヒト族が発見された時はちょっと衝撃的だった。それは効果的な二足歩行とは相容れないと考えられていたのだから。この研究は足のそれぞれのパーツが別々の機能を果たせることを示している。足の親指が対向性であっても、二足歩行として適切に機能することができるわけです。」

研究に携わった科学者達は、この研究で初期のヒト族の足には様々な機能が混在していたことがわかったと言う。人間になることは大きな一歩ではなく、一連の段階的な変化であり、最後の、間違いなく最も重要な変化のいくつかが足の指に加えられたのだ。 ピーター・フェルナンデスは、二足歩行の進化に伴う変化を完全に特徴付けるために、残っている前足の骨についても同様の分析を実施したいと述べた。

早稲田スポーツ 2019問題3


【大問3 読解問題】

Read the following passage and answer the questions below.


When the World Cup opens in Moscow on June 14, soccer fans may notice something out of the ordinary. Alongside the slick ad campaigns for famous global brands — Visa, Adidas, Coca-Cola — there will be a proliferation of pitches from obscure companies with names like Mengniu, Vivo, and Wanda. These newly minted World Cup sponsors aren't selling much that is related to soccer, these three, for example, trade in dairy products, smartphones, and movie theaters, all come from a country, moreover, whose national team has never scored a single World Cup goal and is not among the 32 qualifying teams this year, but which still sees itself as the future of soccer: China.

Beijing has made no secret of its soccer ambitions. Over the past few years, President Xi Jinping has vowed to turn China into a "soccer superpower' that will host, qualify ( 1 ) and, by 2050, hopefully win the World Cup. The last goal seems almost ludicrously unattainable: China's men's team languishes at NO.73 in the world rankings, behind juggernauts like Curacao and Cape Verde. Yet the sudden appearance of Chinese companies as top corporate sponsors at this year's World Cup hints at the country's opportunistic rise in the world of soccer. Its incursion was precipitated by a crisis. Actually, two crises. The tournament host, Russia, and the sport's governing body, FIFA, are beset by scandals and controversies that have cast a shadow over the event — and made it a struggle to attract corporate sponsors.

FIFA is still reeling from a hydra-headed corruption case that forced the resignation of its longtime president Sepp Blatter in 2015 and led to the indictment of more than 30 soccer figures around the World. Russia, meanwhile, has been excoriated in the West for everything from poisoning a former spy and his daughter on foreign soil ( 2 ) stoking wars in Syria and Ukraine and meddling in Western elections. When a member of Parliament in Britain compared this year's World Cup to the Nazi Olympics in 1936, Boris Johnson, the foreign secretary, agreed, lamenting the "emetic prospect of Putin glorying in this sporting event." The friendly veneer of the world's most popular sporting event has been stripped away. "The Russians' earlier rhetoric about the World Cup — 'We want to welcome the world' — is largely gone," says Sven Daniel Wolfe, an expert on Russian sporting politics at the University of Lausanne. "Russian elites are done trying to integrate with the West. They are very content now to tout their 'eastward pivot'."

After television broadcasting rights, corporate sponsorships account for the largest portion of FIFA's revenue — some l.58 billion dollars(out of 4.8 billion dollars in total revenue) at the 2014 World Cup in Brazil. Companies have vied for sponsorship slots, eager to promote their brands before an audience that can number more than three billion over the course of the month-long tournament- (The final game in Brazil alone attracted more than one billion viewers; the 2018 Super Bowl drew a little more than 100 million.) But scandals have changed the calculus. The fear of being associated with FIFA or Russia may have pushed away a few big partners (Sony, Johnson & Johnson, Castrol) and scared off other potential sponsors. "We used to have top companies queuing up," says Patrick Nally, a sports-marketing specialist who helped develop FIFA's tiered sponsorship system. "Now they can't attract any big names.

Even as the World Cup audience has grown, the last time FIFA signed a Western sponsor was in 2011, when the corruption investigation began coming to light. The struggle to find sponsors, ( 3 ) huge legal bills, led to a 369 million dollars loss for the organization in 2016, and the worst seemed still to come. In Brazil, FIFA said the sponsorship roster was sold out" more than six months before the tournament began. This year, it has been unable to fill more than a dozen sponsorship positions, with the most glaring absences in the lower tier of "regional supporters," whose rights are limited to the Russian market. Russia and the next World Cup host, Qatar, each offered up a top. But FIFA's real lifeline came from a cluster of Chinese companies willing to pay hundreds of millions of dollars and save the day.

Leaping into the void left by the West gives Chinese companies a way to promote their brands — and to flaunt their patriotism. Wanda, one of China's largest entertainment and movie-theater companies, signed a 150 million dollars global partnership with FIFA at the height of the corruption scandal two years ago — a deal that Wanda's chief executive, Wang Jianlin, said hinged on FIFA's woes. "Because some Western companies dropped out, we got the opportunity," Wang told reporters at the time. "If more Chinese brother companies become FIFA Sponsors like Wanda, we will join fores to advance the interests of China soccer." Over the past 18 months, brothers like Hisense (electronics), VIVO (smartphones), Mengniu (dairy products), and Yadea (electric scooters) have answered the call.

It's hard to say whether these Chinese companies will become household names outside their home country. Sponsorship, for them, is a clear bid to acquire what many corporations covet: a global audience and the legitimacy that comes from sharing airtime With Western giants like McDonald's. Yet the most salient effect may lie in the realm of soft power, helping to solidify China's growing bond With Russia and signal a global economic shift from West to East. "There is a big geopolitical context to all of this," says Simon Chadwick, professor of sports enterprise at the University of Salford, Manchester, in Britain. "China is not trying to rescue FIFA but to influence its decisions over the next 10 years. And the top priority, arguably, is to help China win a bid to host the World Cup."

The New York Times. China Won't Play in This World Cup It Still Hopes to Profit.




(1) On the basis of the passage, fill in T for the true statements and F for the false ones.

A About a third of the Soccer World Cup revenues come from corporate sponsorships.

B China's prospect of winning a bid to host a Soccer World Cup is Weak.

C FIFA is blamed for giving China preferential treatment in the selection of

D The World Cup was endangered by mismanagement on the part of the host.

E A number of big companies withdrew from Soccer World Cup sponsorship for fear of their corporate image being damaged.

F Chinese companies signed sponsorship contracts to save the Soccer Cup from financial difficulties.


(2) Choose the ONE way to complete each of these sentences, which relates to the underlined words in
the passage.

1 Here "proliferation" means

A dominance.
B increase.
C qualification.
D selection.


2 Here "precipitated" means

A brought on.
B held back.
C set up.
D taken in.


3 Here "veneer" means

A disguise.
B match.
C relationship
D welcome.


4 Here "queuing up" means

A pulling out of sponsorship.
B serving as sponsors.
C signing up for sponsorship.
D wanting to become sponsors.


5 Here "covet" means

A acknowledge.
B attract.
C reach.
D want.


(3) Choose the best items to fill in the blanks.

( 1 )

A as
B for
C in
D with


( 2 )

A and
B for
C through
D to

( 3 )

A combined with
B combining
C to be combined with
D to combine


早稲田スポーツ 2019問題3解答


【大問3 読解問題 解答】

(1)
A 
B 
C 
D 
E 
F 

(2)
1 
2 
3 
4 
5 

(3)
1 
2 
3 

早稲田スポーツ 2019問題3解説


【大問3 読解問題 解説】

説明文。長文を読み進めながら適語補充し、まとめて内容理解が問われます。

文章内容は、ワールドカップ運営のために、どのような経済事情があるのか、中国企業のスポンサー活動とともにまとめた記事です。スポーツは競技・選手育成に注目が当たりがちですが、運営・開催・広告などの視点でも理解できるようになりたいです。


【重要表現】

the slick ad campaigns:slick広告。slickとはもともと「滑らかな、ツルツルした」という意味。ここでは、画像などのコンテンツをスムーズにスライドさせるweb広告のこと。

Mengniu:蒙牛乳業 中国トップの乳製品国営企業

Vivo:スマートホンメーカー

Wanda:万達集団  商業、文化、インターネット、金融など多角的に経営するグループ

3社とも中国ではよく知られている企業であるが、2018年現在まだグローバルな知名度はそれほど高くない。漢字(中国で使われている簡体字)のロゴを使っていることも多いため、中国語のわからない外国人にとっては「obsucure」(意味がはっきりしない)でもあるのだろう。けれどもこれらのスポンサーは、中国国内の消費者に自社が世界的なブランドであることを強くアピールすると同時に、近い将来グローバルでも一流企業として認知されようとしているのがわかる。

Hisense (electronics), VIVO (smartphones), Mengniu (dairy products), and Yadea (electric scooters) :このうち中国語表記を持つ企業は、Haisens=海信、Mengniu=蒙牛、Yadea=雅迪


newly minted:新しく作られたばかりの、という意味。この場合mintは「≪貨幣を≫鋳造する」の意。newly minted word, idea, phraseなどのように使われる。

juggernauts like Curacao and Cape Verde:jaggernautの元の意味は、インド神話のクリシュナの神像。転じて巨大な破壊力、強力で巨大なものを表す。イギリスでは大型トラックの異名にもなっている。ここでは強力なチームには到底なりえない二国を逆説的に表現しているものと思われる。

tiered sponsorship system:tier=上下に並んだ段、層、列など。 ティアード・システムとは、幾層にもわかれた料金別システムのこと。広告やプロモーションの内容ごとに段階に分けて料金を設定し、スポンサーを誘致している。

household names:誰もが知っている人物や物の名前のこと。お馴染みの名前。

早稲田スポーツ 2019問題3完成文


【大問3 読解問題  完成文】

When the World Cup opens in Moscow on June 14, soccer fans may notice something out of the ordinary. Alongside the slick ad campaigns for famous global brands — Visa, Adidas, Coxa-Cola — there will be a proliferation of pitches from obscure companies with names like Mengniu, Vivo, and Wanda. These newly minted World Cup sponsors aren't selling much that is related to soccer, these three, for example, trade in dairy products, smartphones, and movie theaters. all come from a country, moreover, whose national team has never scored a single World Cup goal and is not among the 32 qualifying teams this year, but which still sees itself as the future of soccer: China.

Beijing has made no secret of its soccer ambitions. Over the past few years, President Xi Jinping has vowed to turn China into a "soccer superpower' that will host, qualify for and, by 2050, hopefully win the World Cup. The last goal seems almost ludicrously unattainable: China's men's team languishes at NO.73 in the world rankings, behind juggernauts like Curacao and Cape Verde. Yet the sudden appearance of Chinese companies as top corporate sponsors at this year's World Cup hints at the country's opportunistic rise in the world of soccer. Its incursion was precipitated by a crisis. Actually, two crises. The tournament host, Russia, and the sport's governing body, FIFA, are beset by scandals and controversies that have cast a shadow over the event — and made it a struggle to attract corporate sponsors.

FIFA is still reeling from a hydra-headed corruption case that forced the resignation of its longtime president Sepp Blatter in 2015 and led to the indictment of more than 30 soccer figures around the World. Russia, meanwhile, has been excoriated in the West for everything from poisoning a former spy and his daughter on foreign soil to stoking wars in Syria and Ukraine and meddling in Western elections. When a member of Parliament in Britain compared this year's World Cup to the Nazi Olympics in 1936, Boris Johnson, the foreign secretary, agreed, lamenting the "emetic prospect of Putin glorying in this sporting event." The friendly veneer of the world's most popular sporting event has been stripped away. "The Russians' earlier rhetoric about the World Cup — 'We want to welcome the world' — is largely gone," says Sven Daniel Wolfe, an expert on Russian sporting politics at the University of Lausanne. "Russian elites are done trying to integrate with the West. They are very content now to tout their 'eastward pivot.

After television broadcasting rights, corporate sponsorships account for the largest portion of FIFA's revenue — some l.58 billion dollars(out of 4.8 billion dollars in total revenue) at the 2014 World Cup in Brazil. Companies have vied for sponsorship slots, eager to promote their brands before an audience that can number more than three billion over the course of the month-long tournament- (The final game in Brazil alone attracted more than one billion viewers; the 2018 Super Bowl drew a little more than 100 million.) But scandals have changed the calculus. The fear of being associated with FIFA or Russia may have pushed away a few big partners (Sony, Johnson & Johnson, Castrol) and scared off other potential sponsors. "We used to have top companies queuing up," says Patrick Nally, a sports-marketing specialist who helped develop FIFA's tiered sponsorship system. "Now they can't attract any big names.

Even as the World Cup audience has grown, the last time FIFA signed a Western sponsor was in 2011, when the corruption investigation began coming to light. The struggle to find sponsors, combined with huge legal bills, led to a 369 million dollars loss for the organization in 2016, and the worst seemed still to come. In Brazil, FIFA said the sponsorship roster was sold out" more than six months before the tournament began. This year, it has been unable to fill more than a dozen sponsorship positions, with the most glaring absences in the lower tier of "regional supporters," whose rights are limited to the Russian market. Russia and the next World Cup host, Qatar, each offered up a top But FIFA's real lifeline came from a cluster of Chinese companies willing to pay hundreds of millions of and save
the day.

Leaping into the void left by the West gives Chinese companies a way to promote their brands — and to flaunt their patriotism. Wanda, one of China's largest entertainment and movie-theater companies, signed a 150 million dollars global partnership with FIFA at the height of the corruption scandal two years ago — a deal that Wanda's chief executive, Wang Jianlin, said hinged on FIFA's woes. "Because some Western companies dropped out, we got the opportunity," Wang told reporters at the time. "If more Chinese brother companies become FIFA Sponsors like Wanda, we will join fores to advance the interests of China soccer." Over the past 18 months, brothers like Hisense (electronics), VIVO (smartphones), Mengniu (dairy products), and Yadea (electric scooters) have answered the call.

It's hard to say whether these Chinese companies will become household names outside their home country. Sponsorship, for them, is a clear bid to acquire what many corporations covet: a global audience and the legitimacy that comes from sharing airtime With Western giants like McDonald's. Yet the most salient effect may lie in the realm of soft power, helping to solidify China's growing bond With Russia and signal a global economic shift from West to East. "There is a big geopolitical context to all of this," says Simon Chadwick, professor of sports enterprise at the University of Salford, Manchester, in Britain. "China is not trying to rescue FIFA but to influence its decisions over the next 10 years. And the top priority, arguably, is to help China win a bid to host the World Cup.

The New York Times. China Won't Play in This World Cup It Still Hopes to Profit.

早稲田スポーツ 2019問題3全訳


【大問3 読解問題  全訳】

6月14日にモスクワでワールドカップが開催されると、サッカーファンは違和感を覚えるかもしれない。有名なグローバルブランド(Visa、Adidas、Coca-Cola)のslick(スリック)広告キャンペーンと並んで、Mengniu( 蒙牛)、Vivo、Wanda⁽万達)といった名前の不明瞭な企業の宣伝が頻出するであろうから。新たに参入したこれらのワールドカップスポンサーは、サッカーに関連するものをあまり販売していない。たとえばこの三社は、乳製品、スマートフォン、映画館を扱っている。そして全てはひとつの国の企業である。さらに言えば、その国の代表チームはワールドカップで一ゴールも獲得したことがなく、今年の32の予選チームにも入っていない。それでもサッカーの未来に自らを見据えている国、中国の企業である。

北京はサッカーへの野心を隠していない。この数年、習近平国家主席は中国をワールドカップの開催国に、予選チームに、できれば2050年までに優勝できるような「サッカー超大国」に変える、と誓った。最後の目標はほとんど馬鹿げていて達成不可能であろう。なぜなら、中国の男子チームは世界ランキング73位に低迷していて、キュラソーやカーボベルデのようなジャガーノートよりも下位なのだから。けれども、今年のワールドカップに中国企業が突如トップスポンサーとして登場したことは、機に乗じてサッカーの世界に躍り出ようとする中国の思惑を感じさせる。この突然の侵入を促したのは連盟を襲ったある危機である。実際には、2つの危機。つまり、トーナメントの主催国であるロシアと、サッカー国際競技連盟FIFAが、イベントに影を落とすスキャンダルや論争に悩まされていて、企業スポンサーの誘致が難しくなっていたのだ。

FIFAは、多岐にわたる腐敗事件から依然として立ち直れていない。長年会長を務めてきたゼップ・ブラッターは2015年に辞任に追いやられ、世界中で30人以上のサッカー関係者が起訴された。一方、ロシアは、シリアとウクライナでの戦争を煽るために、国外で元スパイと彼の娘を毒殺しようとしたり、西側の選挙を干渉しようとするなど、様々な面で西側から非難されていた。英国議会のある議員が今年のワールドカップを1936年のナチスオリンピックになぞらえた時、外務長官ボリス・ジョンソンは「このスポーツイベントで栄光を得ようとするプーチンの吐き気を催させる前途」と嘆いて同意した。世界で最も人気のあるスポーツイベントの友好という薄板が剥ぎ取られてしまった。ローザンヌ大学のロシアスポーツ政治学専門家スヴェン・ダニエル・ウルフは、「ワールドカップに関するロシア人の以前のレトリック-『私たちは世界を歓迎したい』ーは大きく損なわれた」と語る。 「ロシアのエリートは西側と統合しようとするのをやめてしまった。今は、彼らの『東向きの軸足回転』を売り込むことに非常に満足しているのだ。」

企業のスポンサーシップは、テレビ放映権に次いでFIFAの大きな収益を占めている。2014年のブラジルワールドカップでは、約15億8千万ドル(総収益48億8千万ドルのうち)であった。企業はスポンサーになれるわずかな枠を争ってきた。1か月にわたるトーナメントを通じて30億人を超える観客の前で自社のブランドをプロモーションできるからだ。(ブラジルでは決勝戦だけで10億人以上の視聴者を惹きつけた。2018年のスーパーボールは 1億人を少し上回った。)しかし、スキャンダルが計算を狂わせた。 FIFAやロシアと関わることへの恐れから、大きなパートナー数社(ソニー、ジョンソン&ジョンソン、カストロール)が手を引き、他の潜在的なスポンサーも怯ませてしまったようだ。 「私たちはかつてトップ企業を行列に並ばせていた」と、FIFAの段階別スポンサーシップシステムの開発を支援したスポーツマーケティングのスペシャリスト、パトリック・ナリーは言う。 「今では彼らはビッグネームを引き付けることができなくなった。」

ワールドカップの観客が増加したとはいえ、FIFAが最後に西側スポンサーと契約したのは、腐敗捜査が明らかになり始めた2011年だった。スポンサーを見つけるのに苦戦し、莫大な弁護士費用も重なって、2016年には3億6900万ドルの損失が組織にもたらされた。そして最悪の事態はまだ続くかに見えた。FIFAはブラジルではトーナメントが始まる6か月以上前にスポンサーシップ名簿が売り切れたと述べた。今年は、スポンサーシップの1ダース以上のポジションが埋まらず、特にロシア市場での権利しか持たない下位ランクの「地域サポーター」に最も空きが目立っていた。ロシアと次のワールドカップ開催国であるカタールは、それぞれが補填を申し入れたが、FIFAの本当の生命線は、束になって数億ドルを支払い、危機を救ってくれた中国企業によって保たれた。

西側が残した隙間に飛び込むことで、中国企業は自社のブランドを宣伝し、愛国心を誇示する方法を手に入れることができる。中国最大のエンターテイメントおよび映画劇場会社の1つであるワンダは、2年前の汚職スキャンダルの真っ最中に、FIFAと1億5,000万ドルのグローバルパートナーシップ契約を交わした。代表の王健林はそれをFIFAの災難が繋げた成約、と言った。「西洋の企業が何社か抜けたため、我々が機会を得た」と王健林は当時記者団に語った。 「もっと多くの中国の同志がWandaのようにFIFAのスポンサーになれば、中国サッカーの利益を促進する前面に加わることになります。」過去18か月の間に、Hisense(エレクトロニクス)、VIVO(スマートフォン)、Mengniu(乳製品)、Yadea(電動自転車)などの同志が呼びかけに答えた。

これらの中国企業が母国以外で広く知られる名前となれるかどうか、述べるのは難しい。彼らにとってスポンサーシップとは、多くの企業が切望するものを獲得するための明らかな入札である。グローバルな聴衆とマクドナルドのような西洋の巨人と放送時間を分け合うことで生まれる正統性を獲得するためのものである。しかし、最も顕著な効果はソフトパワーの領域にあるのかもしれない。ロシアと中国の強まる絆を確かなものとし、西から東へと世界的な経済シフトが起こっていることを告げ知らせる助けとなるのである。 「これらすべてには地政学的な背景がある」と、英国マンチェスターのサルフォード大学スポーツ事業の教授であるサイモン・チャドウィックは言う。 「中国はFIFAを救おうとしているのではなく、今後10年間にわたりその決定に影響を与えようとしている。そしておそらく最優先事項は、中国がワールドカップ開催の入札に勝つことである。」

早稲田スポーツ 2019問題4


【大問4 文法問題】

Choose the ONE word or phrase that best completes the sentence.


1     other reptiles, such as lizards and turtles, snakes do not have legs, they move by undulating their body.

A Alike
B Dislike
C Like
D Unlike

2 With the publication of The Old Man and the Sea     Of Hemingway's simplistic style of prose.

A came a new appreciation
B did readers appreciate
C was a new appreciation
D readers newly appreciated


3 Today, "carpet" refers to floor coverings that reach from wall to wall,     "rug" refers to a piece of material that covers only one part of the floor, specially as a decoration.

A because
B in as much as
C therefore
D whereas


4 Not until Edward Jenner developed the first anti-smallpox serum in 1796     against the terrible disease.

A it was protected
B only protection was given
C protection was given
D was there protection


5     living in Goodnestone in Kent, England, that the English writer Jane Austen wrote pride and Prejudice, originally titled First Impressions.

A It was
B It was while
C There she was
D While she was



早稲田スポーツ 2019問題4解答


【大問4 文法問題 解答】

1 
2 
3 
4 
5 

早稲田スポーツ 2019問題4解説


【大問4 文法問題 解説】

文法問題。文章中の空欄に適語補充します。

構文の知識が求められ、文章全体をひととおり読んでから解答しましょう。接続詞や副詞構文は重点対策しておきましょう。


1 Unlike other reptiles, such as lizards and turtles, snakes do not have legs, they move by undulating their body.


2 With the publication of The Old Man and the Sea came a new appreciation of Hemingway's simplistic style of prose.


3 Today, "carpet" refers to floor coverings that reach from wall to wall, whereas "rug" refers to a piece of material that covers only one part of the floor, specially as a decoration.


4 Not until Edward Jenner developed the first anti-smallpox serum in 1796 was there protection against the terrible disease.


5 It was while living in Goodnestone in Kent, England, that the English writer Jane Austen wrote pride and Prejudice, originally titled First Impressions.

早稲田スポーツ 2019問題5



【大問5 文法問題】

Choose the ONE underlined word or phrase in each sentence below that is grammatically INCORRECT.

1 Floppy disks (A)came into widespread use during the 1970s (B)as a form of data storage and (C)it remained popular (D)for nearly 40 years.

2 (A)After one and (B)a half month of investigation, (C)police found the(D)missing boys alive in caves on an iskand.

3 Scurvy, (A)caused by (B)the lack of vitamin C, could kill (C)the most of a ship's crew on a long (D)voyage.

4 Natural predators, (A)disturbing from tourists, and pollution (B)have all contributed to (C)the decline of the California (D)condor.

5 (A)Included in this series (B)are "The Enchanted Horse," (C)among other famous (D)children's stories.

早稲田スポーツ 2019問題5解答


【大問5 文法問題 解答】

1 
2 
3 
4 
5 

早稲田スポーツ 2019問題5解説


【大問5 文法問題 解説】

1 Floppy disks came into widespread use during the 1970s as a form of data storage and it had remained popular for nearly 40 years.

2 After one and a half months of investigation, police found themissing boys alive in caves on an iskand.

3 Scurvy, caused by the lack of vitamin C, could kill most of a ship's crew on a long voyage.

4 Natural predators, disturbed from tourists, and pollution have all contributed to the decline of the California condor.

5 Included in this series is "The Enchanted Horse," among other famous children's stories.

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