慶応義塾大学 経済学部 傾向対策解答解説 2019

慶応義塾大学 経済学部 傾向対策解答解説 2019

慶応義塾大学 経済学部 傾向対策解答解説 2019

慶応義塾大学 経済学部 傾向対策解答解説 2019


慶應義塾大学(慶応大学)経済学部の過去問2019年の解答・解説・全訳です。受験生の入試対策のためにプロ家庭教師が出題傾向を分析実況します。

【英語の試験構成 長文3本+英作文2本 読む力と書く力】
慶應義塾大学経済学部の英語の試験構成は、伝統的に長文読解3問+英作文2問(条件英作文1問+自由英作文1問))で安定しています。読解力と文章力がそれぞれ区別して評価される正統派試験です。


【英語の出典 経済経営系大半】
慶應義塾大学経済学部の英語の出典は、経済学・経営学についての文章が大半です。経済学の理論を探求する文章と、経営学の実務的な問題に対処する文章が出題されます。

【自由英作文 100語以上】
慶應義塾大学経済学部の自由英作文は、100語以上の本格的な英作文です。文法力に加えて、構成力が求められます。


【プロ家庭教師 経済学部対策講座】
慶應義塾大学(慶応大学)経済学部への合格対策カリキュラムをプロ家庭教師に指導依頼できます。


【大学】:慶應義塾大学(慶応大学)
【学部】:経済学部
【年度】:2019年
【定員】:630人
【配点】:200点/420点
【試験時間】:100分

【大問】:1
【形式】:適語補充+内容理解
【表題】:観光詐欺に引っかからない Avoiding the Tourist Trap
【作者】:バイナン・ダニット Binan Dunnit
【対策】:文章を読みながら文法と内容理解を問います。大問1から大問3はすべて同じ形式です。文法ではアクセントが出題されましたが、標準的な難易度の単語でした。文章内容は、エコツーリズムで、観光作業・地域振興・環境破壊が、さまざまな視点で分析され、現代における観光思想とは何かが問われています。
【用語】:観光旅行 エコツーリズム 環境破壊
【目安時間】:25分/100分

【大問】:2
【形式】:適語補充+内容理解
【表題】:地平線を広げる Broadening Our Horizons
【作者】:T.フォーチュー T. Fortue
【対策】:文章を読みながら文法と内容理解を問います。大問1から大問3はすべて同じ形式です。文法ではアクセントが出題されましたが、標準的な難易度の単語でした。文章内容は、大問2と大問1が対比された意見が述べられています。慶應義塾大学経済学部の特徴で、対立する2つの視点(肯定派と反対派)の両方からの理解力が求められており、批判的読解力と呼ばれています。大問2はエコツーリズムの賛成派で、観光産業が貧困国の経済成長に貢献すると主張しています。
【用語】:貧困 開発 文化資本
【目安時間】:20分/100分

【大問】:3
【形式】:適語補充+内容理解
【表題】:カジノは大きな賭けだ Casinos High Stakes All Round
【作者】:Anne・T・Uppe
【対策】:文章を読みながら文法と内容理解を問います。大問1から大問3はすべて同じ形式です。文法ではアクセントが出題されましたが、標準的な難易度の単語でした。文章内容は、ギャンブル規制がどのような視点で行われるべきか、制度への理解力が求められています。消費者・企業・公共の三者が、どのような利害関係にあるのか、ていねいに分析しましょう。
【用語】:カジノ規制 地域振興 統合型リゾート
【目安時間】:25分/100分

【大問】:4
【形式】:条件英作文
【表題】:来年パリに留学しなければクラブを続けてリーグ優勝の経験ができたのに
【作者】:ーーー
【対策】:条件英作文で、50語前後で、会話文の翻訳が求められます。日本語では自然な表現でも、英語には翻訳しにくい会話が、例年出題されています。文字通りに翻訳するだけではなく、うまく英語にできない場合は、意味を解釈して、別の言い回しを選ぶ必要があります。
【用語】:会話 留学 計画文
【目安時間】:10分/100分

【大問】:5
【形式】:自由英作文
【表題】:日本政府は外国人観光客を誘致すべきか Should the Japanese government encourage many more tourists to visit Japan?
【作者】:ーーー
【対策】:自由英作文で、120語前後で、意見を述べます。慶応経済学部の自由英作文は、例年、一番最後に出題され、それまでに登場した文章について、受験生が意見を述べるように構成されています。前の文章から、自分の意見に近いものを選んで、そこに肉付けしていく書き方がおすすめです
【用語】:観光誘致 カジノ規制 統合型リゾート
【目安時間】:20分/100分




慶応 経済学部 2019 問題1


【大問1 適語補充+内容理解】
Read the following article and answer the questions as indicated.

Paragraph1 In May 2015, a single Chinese company sent 6,400 of its employees to France for a four-day group vacation. The visit required private viewings of the Louvre, bookings of 140 hotels in Paris, and more than 4,700 rooms in Cannes and Monaco. But how much further can we take this kind of tourism? Today we hear increasing complaints from cities [ 1 ] Barcelona, Florence, and Venice, which are all overwhelmed with tourists. Furthermore, tourists are slowly destroying many fragile but beautiful natural sites, from coral reefs to rainforests. Either tourism must change, or it must begin to have restrictions placed upon it [ 2 ].

Paragraph2 Restraining tourism is first and foremost our duty to the global environment. The Galapagos Islands are a perfect illustration. Famous as the remote location which helped Darwin develop his views on evolution, today they are visited by tens of thousands of tourists. However, the cruise ships [ 3 ] much pollution: oil and plastics, human and food waste, and non-native species carried from distant shores. Of course, this is an extreme example. Yet wherever they go, tourists put strains on the environment. They create pollution, excess traffic, and overcrowding on beaches and in parks.

Paragraph3 Tourism to historical sites might seem immune to these dangers. The tourists are coming to experience cultural differences via an appreciation of heritage. All too often, however, such tourism fails to promote any meaningful cultural exchange. Take Florence, for example. The 11 million tourists it attracts each year often experience tourism itself as much as local culture [ 4 ]. They endure long queues, only to receive brief explanations and a very limited time at each attraction. An hour waiting in line for a two-minute viewing of a Botticelli hardly seems worthwhile. Indeed, many tourist magnets promise an ”authentic cultural experience”, but are ultimately obliged [ 5 ] to sell fakes. Mass tourist destinations can often seem false: they fail to show the local culture accurately, but instead offer a fantasy which is no better than a trip to Disneyland.

Paragraph4 Promoters of tourism often cite its economic advantages. However, its local benefits can be exaggerated. The kinds of jobs which tourism creates are often low-paid service-sector jobs in housekeeping, retail, and transport. These jobs hold little attraction for the local youth, and many hotels instead turn to cheap immigrant labor to do the work. [ 6 ], much tourism is seasonal: towns and resorts may suffer off-season, due to the slowdown in income. Worse still, tourism can bring an increase in crime. Some destinations cater for young people, with bars and strip clubs, not museums and cultural attractions. Unsurprisingly, then, the locals get more than the economic boom they had hoped for – social disturbances which can affect family life and the safety of children.

Paragraph5 Desire for profit has driven the rapid growth of tourism. Tourism has become the world's largest and fastest-growing industry. In 1950, around 25 million people travelled abroad. However, according to the UN World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), international tourist arrivals by 2015 had reached close to 1.2 billion, generating $1.5 trillion in export earnings. By 2030, the UNWTO forecasts international tourist arrivals to reach 1.8 billion.

Paragraph6 Nevertheless, the profits of tourism are often a mere illusion. Much of the money earned simply returns abroad. For example, researchers found that less than half of the income from safari and beach tourism in Kenya remains in Kenya, mainly because of package tours arranged by foreign companies, which rely on foreign-owned airlines and hotels. Even worse, most tourists do not [ 7 ] the services they access: added tourists put excessive strain on existing water supplies, transport systems, parking, and on other public services, such as police and ambulance, which are paid for by local taxpayers. A popular tourist destination may also see housing prices increase, as visitors buy up houses, reducing the supply of accommodation for locals.

Paragraph7 Eco-tourism, with its emphasis on sustainability and small-scale operations, is often portrayed as the answer to these issues. But even if it could help, the problem of scale would remain. [ 8 ]. An abundance of eco-tourist ventures - mass eco-tourism - is necessarily a contradiction in terms. In order to weaken tourist demand we need to address tourism's external costs - its social and environmental damage - and employ some version of a tourism tax worldwide, in order to generate funds to repair the damage we are causing.

Paragraph8 Does all of this affect how we should view travel? [ 9 ] All the evidence suggests we need to change our travel habits. In the age of the Internet we can all become, as Isak Dinesen put it, “travelers in our minds”. We can explore remote corners of the globe without leaving our living rooms. Quite clearly, most travelers today are neither scientists nor explorers. Most modern travel is just tourism - a form of escapist entertainment which, like most types of leisure, is best in moderation.

Binan Dunnit. Avoiding the Tourist Trap. 2016.




Answer questions [ 1 ]—[ 9 ] as indicated.

1. Which of the following would best fill the gap at [ 1 ] in Paragraph 1?
Answer by filling in the corresponding slot under the number (1) on the mark sheet.

1. as famous as
2 famous as
3 how famous as
4 such famous as


2. When the underlined sentence at [ 2 ] in Paragraph1 is spoken, which of the following word pairs would naturally be stressed? Answer by filling in the corresponding slot under the number ( 2 ) on the mark sheet.

1 change...restrictions
2 Either... begin
3 must... must
4 tourism...it


3. The five words below fill the gap at [ 3 ] in Paragraph2 Which word must come third in order for them to complete a grammatical sentence? Answer by filling in the corresponding slot under the number (3) on the mark sheet.

1 about
2 bring
3 but
4 cannot
5 help


4. Which of the following is the closest in meaning to the underlined phrase at [ 4 ] in Paragraph3? Answer by filling in the corresponding slot under the number ( 4 ) on the mark sheet.

1 they are often as experienced at tourism itself as at local culture
2 they often learn more by local culture than by their tourism experience
3 they often learn about tourism itself as opposed to local attractions
4 they usually experience the local culture itself through tourism


5. In which two of the words (a) to (e) is the second syllable pronounced in the same way as in the second syllable of the underlined word at [ 5 ] in Paragraph 3? Answer by filling in the corresponding slot under the number ( 5 ) on the mark sheet.

(a) deceive
(b) environment
(c) forgive
(d) origin
(e) revival


1 (a) and (b)
2 (b) and (c)
3 (b) and (e)
4 (c) and (d)
5 (d) and (e)


6 Which of the following would best fill the gap at [ 6 ] in Paragraph4?
Answer by filling in the corresponding slot under the number ( 6 ) on the mark sheet.

1 By contrast
2 However
3 Moreover
4 Ultimately


7 Which of the following would best fill the gap at [ 7 ] in Paragraph6? Answer by filling in the corresponding slot under the number ( 7 ) on the mark sheet.

1 express gratitude for
2 make enough use of
3 patiently put up with
4 pay fully for


8 Which of the following would best fill the gap at [ 8 ] in Paragraph7? Answer by filling in the corresponding slot under the number ( 8 ) on the mark sheet.

1 Creating a vast network of eco-resorts would clearly be sustainable
2 Even eco-tourist ventures have negative environmental impacts
3 Financial burdens would go far beyond the environmental effects
4 Little or no environmental damage is created by eco-resorts


9 Which of the following would best fill the gap at [ 9 ] in Paragraph8? Answer by filling in the corresponding slot under the number ( 9 ) on the mark sheet.

1 Actually, no.
2 I think it is unlikely.
3 Who could doubt it?
4 Why should it?

慶応 経済学部 2019 問題1 解答


【大問1 適語補充+内容理解 解答】

(1) 1
(2) 1
(3) 3
(4) 1
(5) 3
(6) 3
(7) 4
(8) 2
(9) 3


慶応 経済学部 2019 問題1 解説


【大問1 適語補充+内容理解 解説】

文章を読みながら文法と内容理解を問います。大問1から大問3はすべて同じ形式です。

文法ではアクセントが出題されましたが、標準的な難易度の単語でした。

文章内容は、エコツーリズムで、観光作業・地域振興・環境破壊が、さまざまな視点で分析され、現代における観光思想とは何かが問われています。


(1) 1

Today we hear increasing complaints from cities as famous as Barcelona, Florence, and Venice, which are all overwhelmed with tourists


(2) 1

ここまでの文章では、観光旅行による外部不経済(環境破壊)が深刻な問題として提起されています。そこからどのような解決策があるかを検討していく流れとなります。

Either tourism must change, or it must begin to have restrictions placed upon it. では、must(でなければならない)という部分を強調します。


(3) 3

the cruise ships cannot help but bring about much pollution: oil and plastics, human and food waste, and non-native species carried from distant shores.

熟語cannot help but doを利用します。


(4) 1

they are often as experienced at tourism itself as at local culture

as ~ asがあるので同格級の文章であることに気づきたいです。


(5) 3

発音アクセントの問題です。

単語発音
obligedəˈblʤd
deceivedɪˈsiːv 
environmentɪnˈvərənmənt 
forgivefəˈgɪv 
originˈɒrɪʤɪn 
revivalrɪˈvvəl



(6) 3

観光産業は、地域経済にとっては低賃金労働を増やすという欠点を指摘したあと、さらにもう1つの欠点を指摘する論理展開です。


(7) 4

観光客は、地域サービスを利用しますが、地域に税金を完全には負担しないことが指摘されています。


(8) 2

ここから先の文章にeco-tourist venturesが登場していますので、ここはeco-tourist venturesを導入する文章を選びます。


(9) 3

Who could doubt it?
誰が疑えるだろうか(いや、疑いなく正しい)


慶応 経済学部 2019 問題1 完成文


【大問1 適語補充+内容理解 完成文】
Read the following article and answer the questions as indicated.

Paragraph1 In May 2015, a single Chinese company sent 6,400 of its employees to France for a four-day group vacation. The visit required private viewings of the Louvre, bookings of 140 hotels in Paris, and more than 4,700 rooms in Cannes and Monaco. But how much further can we take this kind of tourism? Today we hear increasing complaints from cities as famous as
Barcelona, Florence, and Venice, which are all overwhelmed with tourists. Furthermore, tourists are slowly destroying many fragile but beautiful natural sites, from coral reefs to rainforests. Either tourism must change, or it must begin to have restrictions placed upon it.

Paragraph2 Restraining tourism is first and foremost our duty to the global environment. The Galapagos Islands are a perfect illustration. Famous as the remote location which helped Darwin develop his views on evolution, today they are visited by tens of thousands of tourists. However, the cruise ships the cruise ships cannot help but bring about much pollution: oil and plastics, human and food waste, and non-native species carried from distant shores. Of course, this is an extreme example. Yet wherever they go, tourists put strains on the environment. They create pollution, excess traffic, and overcrowding on beaches and in parks.

Paragraph3 Tourism to historical sites might seem immune to these dangers. The tourists are coming to experience cultural differences via an appreciation of heritage. All too often, however, such tourism fails to promote any meaningful cultural exchange. Take Florence, for example. The 11 million tourists it attracts each year often experience tourism itself as much as local culture. They endure long queues, only to receive brief explanations and a very limited time at each attraction. An hour waiting in line for a two-minute viewing of a Botticelli hardly seems worthwhile. Indeed, many tourist magnets promise an "authentic cultural experience”, but are ultimately obliged to sell fakes. Mass tourist destinations can often seem false: they fail to show the local culture accurately, but instead offer a fantasy which is no better than a trip to Disneyland.

Paragraph4 Promoters of tourism often cite its economic advantages. However, its local benefits can be exaggerated. The kinds of jobs which tourism creates are often low-paid service-sector jobs in housekeeping, retail, and transport. These jobs hold little attraction for the local youth, and many hotels instead turn to cheap immigrant labor to do the work. Moreover, much tourism is seasonal: towns and resorts may suffer off-season, due to the slowdown in income. Worse still, tourism can bring an increase in crime. Some destinations cater for young people, with bars and strip clubs, not museums and cultural attractions. Unsurprisingly, then, the locals get more than the economic boom they had hoped for – social disturbances which can affect family life and the safety of children.

Paragraph5 Desire for profit has driven the rapid growth of tourism. Tourism has become the world's largest and fastest-growing industry. In 1950, around 25 million people travelled abroad. However, according to the UN World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), international tourist arrivals by 2015 had reached close to 1.2 billion, generating $1.5 trillion in export earnings. By 2030, the UNWTO forecasts international tourist arrivals to reach 1.8 billion.

Paragraph6 Nevertheless, the profits of tourism are often a mere illusion. Much of the money earned simply returns abroad. For example, researchers found that less than half of the income from safari and beach tourism in Kenya remains in Kenya, mainly because of package tours arranged by foreign companies, which rely on foreign-owned airlines and hotels. Even worse, most tourists do not pay fully for the services they access: added tourists put excessive strain on existing water supplies, transport systems, parking, and on other public services, such as police and ambulance, which are paid for by local taxpayers. A popular tourist destination may also see housing prices increase, as visitors buy up houses, reducing the supply of accommodation for locals.

Paragraph7 Eco-tourism, with its emphasis on sustainability and small-scale operations, is often portrayed as the answer to these issues. But even if it could help, the problem of scale would remain. Even eco-tourist ventures have negative environmental impacts. An abundance of eco-tourist ventures - mass eco-tourism - is necessarily a contradiction in terms. In order to weaken tourist demand we need to address tourism's external costs - its social and environmental damage - and employ some version of a tourism tax worldwide, in order to generate funds to repair the damage we are causing.

Paragraph8 Does all of this affect how we should view travel? Who could doubt it? All the evidence suggests we need to change our travel habits. In the age of the Internet we can all become, as Isak Dinesen put it, “travelers in our minds”. We can explore remote corners of the globe without leaving our living rooms. Quite clearly, most travelers today are neither scientists nor explorers. Most modern travel is just tourism - a form of escapist entertainment which, like most types of leisure, is best in moderation.

Binan Dunnit. Avoiding the Tourist Trap. 2016.

慶応 経済学部 2019 問題1 全訳


【大問1 適語補充+内容理解 全訳】
次の記事を読んで、指示に従って質問に答えてください。


段落1 5月20日、1つの中国企業が4日間のグループ休暇のために従業員6,400人をフランスに派遣しました。この訪問には、ルーヴル美術館のプライベートビュー、パリの140ホテルの予約、カンヌとモナコの4,700以上の客室が必要でした。しかし、この種の観光事業を私たちはどれだけ推進できるのでしょうか。今日、観光客で圧倒されているバルセロナ、フィレンツェ、ヴェネツィアなどの有名都市からの苦情が増えています。さらに、観光客はサンゴ礁から熱帯雨林に至るまで、多くの壊れやすいが美しい自然景観をゆっくりと破壊しています。観光は変化しなければならないか、あるいはそれに制限がかかり始めなければなりません。

段落2 観光制限は、何よりもまず地球環境に対する義務です。ガラパゴス諸島は完璧な例です。ダーウィンが進化についての見解を発展させるのに役立った遠隔地として有名で、今日では何万人もの観光客が訪れています。しかし、クルーズ船は多くの汚染をもたらさざるを得ません:石油とプラスチック、人間と食物の廃棄物、そして遠い海岸から運ばれる外来種。もちろん、これは極端な例です。しかし、どこへ行っても、観光客は環境に負担をかけます。それらは、ビーチや公園で汚染、過剰交通、過密状態を引き起こします。

段落3 史跡観光は、これらの危険を免れているように見えるかもしれません。観光客は、遺産鑑賞を通じて文化の違いを体験するようになります。しかし、あまりにも頻繁に、そのような観光は意味のある文化交流を促進することができません。フィレンツェを例に考えてみましょう。毎年1100万人が訪れる観光客は、地元文化と同じくらい観光そのものを経験することがよくあります。彼らは長い行列に耐え、名所で短い説明と非常に限られた時間を甘受するだけです。ボッティチェッリの2分間の視聴を一列に並べて待つのはほとんど価値がないようです。実際、多くの観光広告は「本物の文化体験」を約束しますが、最終的には偽物を販売せざるを得ません。大人数の観光地はしばしば偽物のように見えることがあります。彼らは地元文化を正確に見せることができませんが、しかしそれはディズニーランドへの旅行となんら変わるものではない幻想を代わりに提供します。

段落4 観光誘致業者は、しばしばその経済的利点を挙げています。ただし、その地域貢献は誇張されているかもしれません。観光業が生み出す仕事の種類は、家事・小売・輸送などの低賃金サービス部門の仕事であることがよくあります。これらの仕事は地元の若者にはあまり魅力がなく、代わりに多くのホテルが仕事をするために安い移民労働者に頼ります。さらに多くの観光は季節性です。町や観光地は、季節外れになると、収入の低下により、苦しみます。さらに悪いことに、観光は犯罪増加をもたらす可能性があります。博物館や文化施設ではなく、バーやストリップクラブがある若者向けの目的地もあります。当然のことながら、地元の人々は、彼らが期待していた経済振興以上のものを得てしまいます。それは、家族生活や子供の安全に影響を与える可能性のある社会的混乱です。

段落5 利益追究は、観光業の急速な成長を促進しました。観光業は、世界最大かつ最も急成長している産業となっています。1950年には、約2500万人が海外を旅しました。しかし、国連世界観光機関(UNWTO)によると、2015年までの国際観光客移動は12億ドル近くに達し、1兆5千億ドルの輸出収入を生み出しました。 2030年までに、UNWTOは国際観光客の到着が18億に達すると予測しています。

段落6 それにもかかわらず、観光の利益はしばしば単なる幻想です。稼いだお金の多くは、単に海外に返還されます。例えば、ケニアのサファリとビーチ観光からの収入の半分未満がケニアに残っていることが研究者たちによって発見されました。これは主に、外資系航空会社やホテルに依存する外国企業が手配したパッケージツアーが原因です。さらに悪いことに、ほとんどの観光客は利用するサービスに対して全額を支払っていません。追加の観光客は、既存の水道、輸送システム、駐車場、および地方納税者によって支払われる警察や救急車などの他の公共サービスに過度の負担をかけます。人気のある観光地では、訪問者が家を購入し、地元住民への宿泊施設の供給が減少するため、住宅価格が上昇することもあります。

段落7 エコツーリズムは、持続可能性と小規模事業に重点を置いており、これらの問題に対する答えとしてしばしば描かれています。しかし、たとえそれが支援になるとしても、規模の問題は残ります。 エコツーリストのベンチャーでさえも環境に悪影響を及ぼします。豊富なエコツーリストベンチャーーー大量のエコツーリズムーーーは必然的に矛盾しています。観光客の需要を弱めるためには、私たちが引き起こしている損害を修復するための資金を生み出すために、観光の外部費用ーーーその社会的および環境的損害ーーーに対処し、世界中である種の観光税を導入する必要があります。

段落8 これらのすべては、私たちの旅行への思想に影響しますか?疑うべくもない。すべての事実は、旅行習慣を変える必要があることを示唆しています。インターネット時代には、アイザック・ダイネセンが言うように、私たちは皆、「私たちの心の中の旅行者」になることができます。居間を離れることなく、地球の遠く離れた場所を探索できます。明らかに、今日のほとんどの旅行者は科学者でも探検家でもありません。現代の旅行のほとんどは単なる観光であり、ほとんどの種類の娯楽と同様に、最適な現実逃避者の娯楽形態です。

慶応 経済学部 2019 問題2


【大問2 適語補充+内容理解】


Read the following article and answer the questions as indicated.

Paragraph1 According to the World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC), in 2016, travel and tourism's direct and indirect impact made an 8.3 trillion dollars contribution to the world's GDP (10.4%), 313 million jobs (an incredible 1 in 10 jobs around the world), 1.5 trillion dollars exports (6.5% of total exports and 28.8% of global services exports), and 882 billion dollars investment (4.5% of total investment). These figures alone should be enough to [ 10 ] much criticism of tourism. But tourism is about much more than money. It has so many vital cultural and political effects that we should not only seek to support it, but to actively expand it.

Paragraph2 Initially we need to recognize the positive effects that tourism could have on some of the world's poorest countries. According to the WTTC, in 2017 the Maldives, today relatively rich, ranked first among tourism-dependent countries, deriving 39% of its GDP directly from tourism. On the same list, Vanuatu and Cape Verde, still poor and in need of development, ranked ninth and tenth. However, the same organization's list of the eight nations with the fastest tourism growth in 2017 is still more revealing: Egypt, Mongolia, Georgia, Nicaragua, Turkey, Moldova, Libya, and Nepal. By 2028 the WTTC estimates that Tanzania, Myanmar, Namibia and Bangladesh, all developing countries, are also set for major growth. [ 11 ].

Paragraph3 Furthermore, tourists bring money to rural areas. Across the globe the endless pull of urbanization has weakened village communities. Without tourists, [ 12 ]. Many scenic areas can anticipate no other viable sources of income, lacking the resources and connections needed for manufacturing or trade. The tourist industry, seasonal though [ 13 ] it often may be, is good for a region's economy, creating jobs based on tourist arrivals and businesses like hotels and boutiques that cater to tourists; added sales taxes collected from tourists may also benefit local people. A good example would be Majorca in Spain: once one of Spain's poorest regions, thanks to tourist income it is today the richest in per capita income.

Paragraph4 Cultural capital is hard to define, but however one does so, tourism is already playing an active part in preserving it. At a glance, tourists might seem to be simply a burden that host countries must endure for financial gain. However, the hosts are given strong incentives to maintain and respect their local traditions. In our increasingly globalized world, that is important: too much of our heritage is being lost to heartless multinational corporations. Arts and skills, languages and cultures which might otherwise disappear are preserved for tourists to admire. Furthermore, regions that benefit from tourism usually place an added [ 14 ] keeping their environment clean and safe, which benefits all residents. [ 15 ]

Paragraph5 Opponents of tourism are keen to point out its worst excesses. This is simply another example of tunnel vision. Critics of automobile emissions usually make the same kind of error: [ 16 ], without acknowledging the vast contribution and continued appeal of the car globally. Picking fault with a few areas or cities cannot hide the fact that tourism as an industry has grown and diversified at an incredible speed. From campsites, inns, small hotels, eco-tourist lodges, to grand resorts, tourism has contributed more to global development than many traditional industries. The critics need to admit the weakness of their own position. They would rather [ 17 ] than see a tourism industry grow and solve that problem.

Paragraph6 Tourism is the industry of the future, particularly for many developing countries. Many of the world's least developed countries have already realized that it offers a unique path to rapid development. Though they might lack industry or expertise, this is one road which, if well managed, can bring in needed income. Tourism is an industry which promotes international understanding in a time of looming trade wars, co-operation in an age of great power competition, and tolerance when many societies are increasingly nationalistic. Why on earth would we even consider restricting such a valuable resource? [ 18 ] [ 19 ] [ 20 ]

T・Fortue. Broadening Our Horizons. 2018.



Answer questions [ 10 ] - [ 20 ] as indicated.


10. Which of the following would best fill the gap at [ 10 ] in Paragraph? Answer by filling in the corresponding slot under the number (10) on the mark sheet.

1 attract
2 encourage
3 focus
4 prevent


11. Which of the following would best fill the gap at [ 11 ] in Paragraph2, and thus complete the paragraph? Answer by filling in the corresponding slot under the number (11) on the mark sheet.

1 Few other countries will follow the example of the Maldives
2 These examples can only begin to illustrate tourism's potential
3 Tourism must not be seen as a solution to deep poverty
4 Without tourism, few countries could have attained development


12. Which of the following would best fill the gap at [ 12 ] in Paragraph3 ? Answer by filling in the corresponding slot under the number (12) on the mark sheet.

1 both town and countryside would have collapsed
2 larger urban centers would have disappeared
3 many isolated settlements would have vanished
4 quite a few remote villages would have flourished


13 . Which of the following words is pronounced with the same vowel sound(母音) as the underlined word at [ 13 ] in Paragraph3 ? Answer by filling in the corresponding slot under the number (13) on the mark sheet.

1 cow
2 through
3 throw
4 tough


14 . Which of the following would best fill the gap at [ 14 ] in Paragraph4?
Answer by filling in the corresponding slot under the number (14) on the mark sheet.

1 bonus for
2 emphasis on
3 importance to
4 stress towards


15. In Paragraph4 , which of the following does the author view as the greatest threat to cultural capital? Answer by filling in the corresponding slot under the number (15) on the mark sheet.

1 environmental destruction
2 excessive tourism
3 financial incentives
4 multinational corporations


16. Which of the following best fills the gap at [ 16 ] in Paragraph5? Answer by filling in the corresponding slot under the number (16) on the mark sheet.

1 they can only see the positive results
2 they find fault where no fault exists
3 they reveal more about automobiles than tourism
4 they simply focus on the negative


17. Which of the following best fills the gap at [ 17 ] in Paragraph5? Answer by filling in the corresponding slot under the number (17) on the mark sheet.

1 complain about the growth of traditional arts and crafts
2 have hundreds of millions live in poverty
3 preserve unspoiled wilderness in plenty
4 promote environmentally sustainable tourism


18, 19, 20. Look at the issues listed below. Then, comparing articles I and II, under the corresponding number (18), (19), and (20) on the mark sheet, fill in:

Slot 1, if only article I (Binan Dunnit) mentions the issue
Slot 2, if only article II (T. Fortue) mentions the issue
Slot 3, if both authors mention the issue
Slot 4, if neither author mentions the issue

18. The rapid growth of tourism
19. The role played by women in tourism
20. Foreign ownership

慶応 経済学部 2019 問題2 解答


【大問2 適語補充+内容理解 解答】


(10) 4
(11) 2
(12) 3
(13) 3
(14) 2
(15) 4
(16) 4
(17) 2
(18) 3
(19) 4
(20) 1


慶応 経済学部 2019 問題2 解説


【大問2 適語補充+内容理解 解説】

(10) 4

These figures alone should be enough to prevent much criticism of tourism.

ここまでは観光産業がもたらす膨大な利益について語っています。したがって、筆者は観光産業の賛成派であることを読み取りたいです。


(11) 2

These examples can only begin to illustrate tourism's potential
ツーリズムが経済成長の起爆剤となったと述べています。


(12) 3

直後にMany scenic areas can anticipate no other viable sources of incomeと述べており、、ツーリズムがなければ田舎には収入がなく、維持できないと主張されています。


(13) 3

英単語発音
thoughðəʊ
cowkaʊ
throughθruː
throwθrəʊ
tʌftough


(14) 2

regions that benefit from tourism usually place an added emphasis on keeping their environment clean and safe, which benefits all residents.

熟語のplace emphasis onに注目しましょう。


(15) 4

too much of our heritage is being lost to heartless multinational corporationsとあるので、筆者は多国籍企業による危険性を指摘しています。


(16) 4

直前にThis is simply another example of tunnel visionとあるので、視野狭窄な状態を示唆しています。


(17) 2

rather X than Yの構文がありますので対比表現が入ります。


(18) 3

どちらの文章も観光産業の急速な発達は指摘しています。


(19) 4

女性の役割についてはどちらの文章も触れていません。


(20) 1
大問1の第6段落ではresearchers found that less than half of the income from safari and beach tourism in Kenya remains in Kenya, mainly because of package tours arranged by foreign companies, which rely on foreign-owned airlines and hotelsと述べられています。

ケニアの観光収入は、外国資本企業の利益になっています。

慶応 経済学部 2019 問題2 完成文


【大問2 適語補充+内容理解 完成文】
Read the following article and answer the questions as indicated.

Paragraph1 According to the World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC), in 2016, travel and tourism's direct and indirect impact made an 8.3 trillion dollars contribution to the world's GDP (10.4%), 313 million jobs (an incredible 1 in 10 jobs around the world), 1.5 trillion dollars exports (6.5% of total exports and 28.8% of global services exports), and 882 billion dollars investment (4.5% of total investment). These figures alone should be enough to prevent much criticism of tourism. But tourism is about much more than money. It has so many vital cultural and political effects that we should not only seek to support it, but to actively expand it.

Paragraph2 Initially we need to recognize the positive effects that tourism could have on some of the world's poorest countries. According to the WTTC, in 2017 the Maldives, today relatively rich, ranked first among tourism-dependent countries, deriving 39% of its GDP directly from tourism. On the same list, Vanuatu and Cape Verde, still poor and in need of development, ranked ninth and tenth. However, the same organization's list of the eight nations with the fastest tourism growth in 2017 is still more revealing: Egypt, Mongolia, Georgia, Nicaragua, Turkey, Moldova, Libya, and Nepal. By 2028 the WTTC estimates that Tanzania, Myanmar, Namibia and Bangladesh, all developing countries, are also set for major growth. These examples can only begin to illustrate tourism's potential.

Paragraph3 Furthermore, tourists bring money to rural areas. Across the globe the endless pull of urbanization has weakened village communities. Without tourists, many isolated settlements would have vanished. Many scenic areas can anticipate no other viable sources of income, lacking the resources and connections needed for manufacturing or trade. The tourist industry, seasonal though it often may be, is good for a region's economy, creating jobs based on tourist arrivals and businesses like hotels and boutiques that cater to tourists; added sales taxes collected from tourists may also benefit local people. A good example would be Majorca in Spain: once one of Spain's poorest regions, thanks to tourist income it is today the richest in per capita income.

Paragraph4 Cultural capital is hard to define, but however one does so, tourism is already playing an active part in preserving it. At a glance, tourists might seem to be simply a burden that host countries must endure for financial gain. However, the hosts are given strong incentives to maintain and respect their local traditions. In our increasingly globalized world, that is important: too much of our heritage is being lost to heartless multinational corporations. Arts and skills, languages and cultures which might otherwise disappear are preserved for tourists to admire. Furthermore, regions that benefit from tourism usually place an added emphasis on keeping their environment clean and safe, which benefits all residents.

Paragraph5 Opponents of tourism are keen to point out its worst excesses. This is simply another example of tunnel vision. Critics of automobile emissions usually make the same kind of error: they simply focus on the negative, without acknowledging the vast contribution and continued appeal of the car globally. Picking fault with a few areas or cities cannot hide the fact that tourism as an industry has grown and diversified at an incredible speed. From campsites, inns, small hotels, eco-tourist lodges, to grand resorts, tourism has contributed more to global development than many traditional industries. The critics need to admit the weakness of their own position. They would rather have hundreds of millions live in poverty than see a tourism industry grow and solve that problem.

Paragraph6 Tourism is the industry of the future, particularly for many developing countries. Many of the world's least developed countries have already realized that it offers a unique path to rapid development. Though they might lack industry or expertise, this is one road which, if well managed, can bring in needed income. Tourism is an industry which promotes international understanding in a time of looming trade wars, co-operation in an age of great power competition, and tolerance when many societies are increasingly nationalistic. Why on earth would we even consider restricting such a valuable resource?

慶応 経済学部 2019 問題2 全訳


【大問2 適語補充+内容理解 全訳】
次の記事を読んで、指示に従って質問に答えてください。

段落1  世界旅行産業会議(WTTC)によると、2016年、旅行と観光の直接的および間接的な影響が、8.3兆ドルの貢献を、世界のGDP(10.4%)へしました。3億1300万人の雇用(世界の雇用のうち10人に1人という信じられない数値)、1兆5000億ドルの輸出(総輸出の6.5%、グローバルサービスの輸出の28.8%)、8820億ドルの投資(総投資額の4.5%)。これらの数字だけで、観光に対する多くの批判を防止するのに十分なはずです。しかし、観光はお金以上のものです。それは非常に多くの重要な文化的および政治的効果を持っているので、私たちはそれを支援するだけでなく、積極的に拡大するべきです。

段落2 最初に、観光が世界の最も貧しい国のいくつかに与える肯定的な影響を認識する必要があります。WTTCによると、2017年のモルディブ、現在は比較的裕福ですが、観光依存国の第1位であり、GDPの39%は直接に観光から得ています。同じ一覧では、バヌアツとカーボベルデは、まだ貧しく開発が必要ですが、9位と10位に格付けされました。しかし、同組織による一覧では、2017年に最も急速に観光産業の成長を遂げた8つの国は、もっと明らかな傾向があります。エジプト、モンゴル、ジョージア、ニカラグア、トルコ、モルドバ、リビア、ネパール。 WTTCの推定では、2028年までに、すべての開発途上国であるタンザニア、ミャンマー、ナミビア、バングラデシュも大幅な成長が見込まれています。 これらの事例は、観光の可能性を説明するための序章に過ぎません。

段落3 さらに、観光客は農村部にお金をもたらします。世界中で、都市化の果てしない牽引力は、村落共同体を弱体化させています。観光客がいなければ、多くの孤立した集落は消えていたでしょう。多くの風光明媚な地域では、製造業や貿易に求められる資源との接続が不足しているため、他の実行可能な収入源はないと予測できます。観光産業は、季節性ではありますが、地域経済に適しています。観光客の到着や、ホテルやブティックなどの観光客向けの産業に基づいて、雇用を創出します。観光客から徴収された追加の税金も、地元住民に利益をもたらす可能性があります。好例は、スペインのマヨルカ島です。かつてはスペインで最も貧しい地域の1つでしたが、観光収入のおかげで、今日では1人当たり所得が最も豊かです。

段落4 文化資本を定義するのは困難ですが、どのように定義したとしても、その保全にすでに観光業は積極的な役割を果たしています。一見したところ、観光客は、単に観光国が経済的利益のために耐えなければならない負担であるように見えるかもしれません。しかし、観光国には地元の伝統を維持し尊重する強い誘因が与えられます。ますますグローバル化する世界では、それは重要です。私たちの遺産の多くが無慈悲な多国籍企業により失われています。そうでなければ消滅するかもしれない芸術と技術、言語と文化は、観光客が賞賛するために保存されています。さらに、観光の恩恵を受ける地域では、通常、環境を清潔で安全に保つことを、さらに強調します。これはすべての住民に利益をもたらします。

段落5 観光の反対者は、極端な悪例を指摘することに熱心です。これは、トンネルビジョンのもう1つの例です。自動車排気ガスの批評家は通常、同じ種類の誤りを犯します。彼らは否定的なことだけに集中します、世界中の自動車の多大な貢献と継続的な魅力を認めずに。いくつかの地域や都市での失敗を拾い上げることでは、産業としての観光が驚くべき速度で成長し多様化したという事実を隠すことはできません。キャンプ場・旅館・小さなホテル・エコツーリズムのロッジから壮大なリゾートまで、観光は多くの伝統産業よりも世界発展に貢献しています。批評家は自分の立場の弱さを認める必要があります。観光業界が成長してその問題を解決するのを見るよりも、何億人もの人々を貧困の中で生きさせようとしています。

段落6 観光産​​業は、特に多くの発展途上国にとって、未来の産業です。世界の後発途上国の多くは、それが急速な発展への独自の道を提供することを、すでに認識しています。産業や専門知識は欠けているかもしれませんが、これはうまく管理されれば、必要な収入をもたらすことができる1つの方法です。観光業は、迫り来る貿易戦争の時代に国際理解を、大国間の競争が激化する時代に協力を、多くの社会がますます国家主義的になったときに寛容を、促進する産業です。いったいなぜこのような貴重資源を制限することを検討しさえするのでしょうか?

慶応 経済学部 2019 問題3


【大問3 適語補充+内容理解】
Read the following article and answer the questions as indicated.

Paragraph1 Most people gamble, even if that merely [ 21 ] calculations about crossing the road or eating an extra slice of cake. As the worldwide popularity of card games and horse-racing illustrates, gambling is entertaining. At the same time, it is rightly regarded as a serious social problem. Societies where illegal or unregulated gambling is common are often characterized by debt-related violence, prostitution, and family collapse. In one sense, building casinos seems a safe solution. Casinos are gaming palaces on a grand scale, easy to supervise and regulate. Yet questions remain: are casinos actually a good thing? Some countries, such as the Netherlands, have tried both the total liberalization and subsequent re-restriction of casinos. Their experience shows that regulating casinos is unavoidable. Banning casinos totally may not reduce gambling, but allowing them total freedom will surely bring negative consequences. So how should we proceed?

Paragraph2 Although casinos seem to bring [ 22 ] economic advantages, their track record has been mixed. To find an obvious example, we simply need to look at Macau. Since the liberalization of casino licensing in 2002, revenues in Macau reached over 45 billion dollars in 2013 before crashing over political worries. Today, even after a 10% recovery, they remain around 33 billion dollars. Similarly, the annual revenues of casino gambling in Singapore peaked at 4 billion dollars in 2013; a considerable sum, but less than 1.3% of GDP. [ 23 ]

Paragraph3 Taxes from the casino industry have become a significant source of government revenues. In the US, commercial casinos have generated annual tax revenues of over 5 billion dollars since the mid-2000s. Casinos have also provided useful tax income in Macau and the Philippines. [ 24 ]. A much-cited 1996 University of Illinois study by John Kindt found that for every dollar of gambling revenue earned in the US, the state had to spend three dollars in criminal justice and social costs. Casinos, he argued, were only economically viable if they could attract money from external sources, which usually means tourists.

Paragraph4 Employment is another area where casinos bring both advantages and disadvantages. Casinos can create thousands of full-time entry-level jobs in areas suffering from chronic unemployment and underemployment. However, the construction of casinos sometimes has negative influences on the revenues and job opportunities of other local industries, and may even destroy their development. One study found that riverboat casinos in Illinois, for instance, did not generate the anticipated tourism and economic growth, because gamblers did not stay in the riverboats long enough or eat at the local restaurants. Another study on New Jersey found that during the four years after casinos began to operate in Atlantic City, the number of retail businesses declined by one-third, and the number of restaurants fell from 243 to 146.

Paragraph5 On the other hand, many of the negative effects of casinos themselves have been exaggerated. Much gambling nowadays is done online at home, or in bars or betting shops where gaming machines are easy to install. This will not go away if casinos are abolished, and to close them may in fact worsen the problem. Communities with casinos are said to experience higher rates of crime, prostitution, bankruptcy, excessive debt burden, higher suicide rates and domestic violence including child abuse. However, such problems exist whether casinos [ 25 ] or not, and accurately measuring casinos' responsibility is not easy. Indeed, casinos sometimes gain local support. One 1999 US study found that 59% of the respondents favored casino establishments in their communities, and 77% agreed that casinos led to positive effects on their communities'
economy.

Paragraph6 Given that casinos, then, are mixed blessings, how should governments regulate them? Measures that can initially be taken include strict checks on licenses and limiting casinos in number and location. Casinos, by separating locals and tourists, for example, and charging the former significant entry fees, as in Singapore, can also grant priority to foreign visitors by allowing them in without charge. Moreover, limits can be placed on betting, and clients can be restricted in how frequently they can enter. All these help to control addiction levels in Singapore, but are not without problems of their own.

Paragraph7 As for licenses, those specifying location have proved more effective than those relating to personnel. Most US states have laws about who can establish a casino, or work there. Nevertheless, [ 26 ] location, the rumored connections between casino employees and organized crime seem to be as strong as ever. Setting limits on casino numbers and position seems more effective. With the exception of Nevada, every US state that has authorized casino gambling has placed limitations. In New Jersey, for example, casinos are limited to a single location-Atlantic City. In Colorado, casinos are limited to three small former mining towns. Midwest states often limit casinos to locations along waterways. Still, this seems to have restricted revenues: none of these states generates even one quarter of Nevada's casino income. [ 27 ]

Paragraph8 In practice, [ 28 ] customer behavior might well be the most effective strategy towards maximizing revenues whilst [ 29 ] social costs. Singapore charges about 80 dollars for each visit by citizens and monitors those who visit more than six times in a month. Yet, this seems to have been far from completely effective: according to the National Addiction Management Service, the number of people [ 30 ] addiction treatment in Singapore has doubled since 2010, when the casinos opened. Amongst a 37% increase in the total number of addicts, the sharpest increase was among those with a gambling addiction. Though Singapore has failed to stop the problem, at least it has administrative measures in place. Many countries, such as the UK and Australia, are struggling to catch up.

Paragraph9 Ultimately, it may not be the job of governments to encourage or prevent people from gambling. It is their difficult responsibility, however, to minimize the social damage it can cause. How many casinos to allow and where, whom to admit, how often, at what cost and for what stakes are important questions. [ 31 ] [ 32 ] [ 33 ]

Anne・T・Uppe. Casinos High Stakes All Round. 2017.



Answer questions [ 21 ] - [ 34 ] as indicated.


21. Which of the following would best fill the gap at [ 21 ] in Paragraph1? Answer by filling in the corresponding slot under the number (21) on the mark sheet.

1 consists
2 decides
3 implies
4 supplies


22. Which of the following would best fill the gap at [ 22 ] in Paragraph? Answer by filling in the corresponding slot under the number (22) on the mark sheet.

1 ever-increasing
2 merely temporary
3 only few
4 well-distributed


23. Based on Paragraph2, by how much did Macau's casino revenues decline as a result of the 2013 crash? Answer by filling in the corresponding slot under the number (23) on the mark sheet.

1 12 billion dollars
2 15 billion dollars
3 30 billion dollars
4 33 billion dollars


24. Which of the following would best fill the gap at [ 24 ] in Paragraph3? Answer by filling in the corresponding slot under the number (24) on the mark sheet.

1 However, these gains may be an illusion
2 Nonetheless, progress has been steady
3 Scientific research supports this conclusion
4 The apparent contradiction is easily reconciled


25. Which of the following would best fill the gap at [ 25 ] in Paragraph5? Answer by filling in the corresponding slot under the number (25) on the mark sheet.

1 are built
2 can be built
3 had been built
4 would be built


26. Which of the following would best fill the gap at [ 26 ] in Paragraph? Answer by filling in the corresponding slot under the number (26) on the mark sheet.

1 due to
2 no matter for
3 regardless of
4 related to


27. Which of the following best expresses the main idea of Paragraph? Answer by filling in the corresponding slot under the number (27) on the mark sheet.

1 Limiting casino numbers has proven to be the best strategy.
2 Locating casinos on waterways is bound to limit revenues.
3 Organized crime is always a threat, wherever casinos are placed.
4 Regulating casino locations is effective, but is economically unattractive.


28, 29, 30. Place three of the words below into the most suitable of the gaps marked [ 28 ], [ 29 ], and [ 30 ] in Paragraph8. Each word may be used only once. Fill in the corresponding slots under the numbers marked (28), (29) and (30) on the mark sheet.

1 minimizing
2 prohibiting
3 regulating
4 requiring
5 suffering
-


31, 32, 33. Read the three statements below. Then, based on the article, under the corresponding number (31), (32), or (33) on the mark sheet, fill in

slot 1 if you think the author would agree with the statement, or
slot 2 if you think the author would disagree with the statement, or
slot 3 if you think the author does not express an opinion about the statement.

31. Casinos increase overall local employment.
32. Gambling problems would not exist without casinos.
33. Singapore has discriminated against locals in order to protect them.



34. The following five words (a) to (e) all appear in the text. When pronounced, which two have the same stress(アクセント) pattern? Answer by filling in the corresponding slot under the number (34) on the mark sheet.

(a) ad•van•tage
(b) ca•si•no
(c) pop•u•lar•i•ty
(d) re•spon•si•bil•i•ty
(e) rev•e•nue

1. (a) and (b)
2 (a) and (d)
3 (b) and (e)
4 (c) and (d)
5 (c) and (e)

慶応 経済学部 2019 問題3 解答


【大問3 適語補充+内容理解 解答】

(21) 3
(22) 1
(23) 2
(24) 1
(25) 1
(26) 1
(27) 4
(28) 3
(29) 1

(30) 4
(31) 2
(32) 2
(33) 1
(34) 1

慶応 経済学部 2019 問題3 解説


【大問3 適語補充+内容理解 解説】
(21) 3

Most people gamble, even if that merely implies calculations about crossing the road or eating an extra slice of cake

ギャンブルをより広い意味で示唆するという意味になります。


(22) 1

Although casinos seem to bring merely temporary economic advantages

この段落では、カジノ収益が恒常的に増加するのではなく、減少する場合や、低位に留まる場合もあることを指摘しています。


(23) 2

Since the liberalization of casino licensing in 2002, revenues in Macau reached over 45 billion dollars in 2013 before crashing over political worries. Today, even after a 10% recovery, they remain around 33 billion dollars.

マカオのカジノ収益は、2013年に450億ドルで、政治問題により低下して300億ドルとなり、その後に10%回復して330億ドルとなります。結果として、政治問題により150億ドルの収益低下がありました。



(24) 1

Casinos have also provided useful tax income in Macau and the Philippines.とあるので、カジノが収益を一見生むかのように見えますが

However, these gains may be an illusion. A much-cited 1996 University of Illinois study by John Kindt found that for every dollar of gambling revenue earned in the US, the state had to spend three dollars in criminal justice and social costs.とカジノにかかる外部費用が指摘されていますので、ここは逆説の接続詞を選びます。


(25) 1

such problems exist whether casinos are built or not



(26) 1

due to location, the rumored connections between casino employees and organized crime seem to be as strong as ever.

カジノの許可方針で「誰がカジノ運営できるのか」を許可する方針は、場所によっては組織犯罪を生み出すという文章です。


(27) 4

Setting limits on casino numbers and position seems more effectiveとあるので、カジノの数を制限する政策は、組織犯罪対策としては有効ですが

this seems to have restricted revenues: none of these states generates even one quarter of Nevada's casino incomeとあるので、カジノの数を制限する政策は、収益が上がりにくいことも指摘されています。


(28) 3
(29) 1
(30) 4

In practice, regulating customer behavior might well be the most effective strategy towards maximizing revenues whilst minimizing social costs. Singapore charges about 80 dollars for each visit by citizens and monitors those who visit more than six times in a month. Yet, this seems to have been far from completely effective: according to the National Addiction Management Service, the number of people requiring addiction treatment in Singapore has doubled since 2010


(31) 2

第4段落にthe construction of casinos sometimes has negative influences on the revenues and job opportunities of other local industries, and may even destroy their developmentとあるので、筆者は、カジノが地元経済に雇用創出をするとは同意していません。


(32) 2

第5段落にCommunities with casinos are said to experience higher rates of crime, prostitution, bankruptcy, excessive debt burden, higher suicide rates and domestic violence including child abuse. However, such problems exist whether casinos are built or not, and accurately measuring casinos' responsibility is not easyとあるので、カジノがなくなれば、ギャンブル問題もなくなるとは、筆者は同意していません。


(33) 1

第8段落にSingapore charges about 80 dollars for each visit by citizens and monitors those who visit more than six times in a monthとあるので、筆者はシンガポールが地元住民を、差別待遇していると同意しています。


(34) 1

英単語発音
advantageədˈvɑːntɪʤ
casinokəˈsiːnəʊ
popularityˌpɒpjʊˈlærɪti
responsibilityrɪsˌpɒnsəˈbɪlɪti
revenueˈrɛvɪnjuː


慶応 経済学部 2019 問題3 完成文


【大問3 適語補充+内容理解 完成文】
Read the following article and answer the questions as indicated.

Paragraph1 Most people gamble, even if that merely implies calculations about crossing the road or eating an extra slice of cake. As the worldwide popularity of card games and horse-racing illustrates, gambling is entertaining. At the same time, it is rightly regarded as a serious social problem. Societies where illegal or unregulated gambling is common are often characterized by debt-related violence, prostitution, and family collapse. In one sense, building casinos seems a safe solution. Casinos are gaming palaces on a grand scale, easy to supervise and regulate. Yet questions remain: are casinos actually a good thing? Some countries, such as the Netherlands, have tried both the total liberalization and subsequent re-restriction of casinos. Their experience shows that regulating casinos is unavoidable. Banning casinos totally may not reduce gambling, but allowing them total freedom will surely bring negative consequences. So how should we proceed?

Paragraph2 Although casinos seem to bring merely temporary economic advantages, their track record has been mixed. To find an obvious example, we simply need to look at Macau. Since the liberalization of casino licensing in 2002, revenues in Macau reached over 45 billion dollars in 2013 before crashing over political worries. Today, even after a 10% recovery, they remain around 33 billion dollars. Similarly, the annual revenues of casino gambling in Singapore peaked at 4 billion dollars in 2013; a considerable sum, but less than 1.3% of GDP.

Paragraph3 Taxes from the casino industry have become a significant source of government revenues. In the US, commercial casinos have generated annual tax revenues of over 5 billion dollars since the mid-2000s. Casinos have also provided useful tax income in Macau and the Philippines. However, these gains may be an illusion. A much-cited 1996 University of Illinois study by John Kindt found that for every dollar of gambling revenue earned in the US, the state had to spend three dollars in criminal justice and social costs. Casinos, he argued, were only economically viable if they could attract money from external sources, which usually means tourists.

Paragraph4 Employment is another area where casinos bring both advantages and disadvantages. Casinos can create thousands of full-time entry-level jobs in areas suffering from chronic unemployment and underemployment. However, the construction of casinos sometimes has negative influences on the revenues and job opportunities of other local industries, and may even destroy their development. One study found that riverboat casinos in Illinois, for instance, did not generate the anticipated tourism and economic growth, because gamblers did not stay in the riverboats long enough or eat at the local restaurants. Another study on New Jersey found that during the four years after casinos began to operate in Atlantic City, the number of retail businesses declined by one-third, and the number of restaurants fell from 243 to 146.

Paragraph5 On the other hand, many of the negative effects of casinos themselves have been exaggerated. Much gambling nowadays is done online at home, or in bars or betting shops where gaming machines are easy to install. This will not go away if casinos are abolished, and to close them may in fact worsen the problem. Communities with casinos are said to experience higher rates of crime, prostitution, bankruptcy, excessive debt burden, higher suicide rates and domestic violence including child abuse. However, such problems exist whether casinos are built or not, and accurately measuring casinos' responsibility is not easy. Indeed, casinos sometimes gain local support. One 1999 US study found that 59% of the respondents favored casino establishments in their communities, and 77% agreed that casinos led to positive effects on their communities' economy.

Paragraph6 Given that casinos, then, are mixed blessings, how should governments regulate them? Measures that can initially be taken include strict checks on licenses and limiting casinos in number and location. Casinos, by separating locals and tourists, for example, and charging the former significant entry fees, as in Singapore, can also grant priority to foreign visitors by allowing them in without charge. Moreover, limits can be placed on betting, and clients can be restricted in how frequently they can enter. All these help to control addiction levels in Singapore, but are not without problems of their own.

Paragraph7 As for licenses, those specifying location have proved more effective than those relating to personnel. Most US states have laws about who can establish a casino, or work there. Nevertheless, due to location, the rumored connections between casino employees and organized crime seem to be as strong as ever. Setting limits on casino numbers and position seems more effective. With the exception of Nevada, every US state that has authorized casino gambling has placed limitations. In New Jersey, for example, casinos are limited to a single location-Atlantic City. In Colorado, casinos are limited to three small former mining towns. Midwest states often limit casinos to locations along waterways. Still, this seems to have restricted revenues: none of these states generates even one quarter of Nevada's casino income.


Paragraph8 In practice, regulating customer behavior might well be the most effective strategy towards maximizing revenues whilst minimizing social costs. Singapore charges about 80 dollars for each visit by citizens and monitors those who visit more than six times in a month. Yet, this seems to have been far from completely effective: according to the National Addiction Management Service, the number of people requiring addiction treatment in Singapore has doubled since 2010, when the casinos opened. Amongst a 37% increase in the total number of addicts, the sharpest increase was among those with a gambling addiction. Though Singapore has failed to stop the problem, at least it has administrative measures in place. Many countries, such as the UK and Australia, are struggling to catch up.

Paragraph9 Ultimately, it may not be the job of governments to encourage or prevent people from gambling. It is their difficult responsibility, however, to minimize the social damage it can cause. How many casinos to allow and where, whom to admit, how often, at what cost and for what stakes are important questions.

慶応 経済学部 2019 問題3 全訳


【大問3 適語補充+内容理解 全訳】
次の記事を読んで、指示に従って質問に答えてください。

段落1 ほとんどの人がギャンブルを行います。たとえそれが単に道路を横断するか、余分なケーキを食べることについての計算を暗示しているとしてもです。カードゲームと競馬の世界的な人気が示すように、ギャンブルは楽しいものです。同時に、それは当然深刻な社会問題とみなされています。違法または規制されていないギャンブルが一般的である社会は、借金に関連した暴力、売春、および家族崩壊によってしばしば特徴付けられます。ある意味では、カジノの構築は安全な問題解決のようです。カジノは、大規模なゲームの宮殿であり、監視と規制が容易です。しかし、疑問は残ります。実際、カジノは良いことなのでしょうか?オランダなど一部の国では、カジノの全面的な自由化とその後の再制限の両方を試みました。彼らの経験は、カジノの規制が避けられないことを示しています。カジノを完全に禁止してもギャンブルが減るわけではありませんが、完全に自由にできるようにすると、負の結果をもたらします。それでは、どのように進めるべきでしょうか?

段落2 カジノは一時的な経済的利点をもたらすに過ぎませんが、実績はまちまちです。明らかな例を見つけるには、マカオを見るだけで事足ります。2002年にカジノの許認可が自由化されて以来、マカオのカジノ収益は、政治問題に衝突する前では、2013年に450億ドル以上に達しました。今日、その後に10%は回復しましたが、330億ドル近辺に残っています。同様に、シンガポールでのカジノギャンブルの年間収益は、2013年に40億ドルに達しました。かなりの額ですが、GDPの1.3%未満です。

段落3 カジノ業界からの税金は、政府大きな歳入源となっています。米国では、商業カジノは、2000年代半ば以降、年間50億ドルを超える税収を生み出しています。カジノはマカオとフィリピンでも有益な税収を提供しています。しかし、これらの利益は幻想かもしれません。1996年に多く引用されたイリノイ大学のジョン・キントの研究は、米国で稼いだギャンブル収益の1ドルごとに、州は刑事司法および社会的費用に3ドルを費やさなければならなかったことを発見しました。彼は、カジノは外部から資金を引き付けることができる場合にのみ経済的に有効であると主張しました。これは通常、観光客を意味します。

段落4 雇用は、カジノが長所と短所の両方をもたらす、もう一つの領域です。カジノは、慢性的な失業と不完全雇用に苦しんでいる地域で、何千ものフルタイムの新卒水準の仕事を生み出すことができます。ただし、カジノの建設は、他の地元産業の収益や雇用機会に負の影響を与えることがあり、その発展を破壊することさえあります。例えば、イリノイ州リバーボートカジノは、ギャンブラーがリバーボートに十分長く滞在したり、地元のレストランで食事をしたりしなかったため、予想される観光と経済成長をもたらさないことがわかりました。ニュージャージー州に関する別の調査では、カジノがアトランティックシティで営業を開始してから4年間で、小売業の数が3分の1減少し、レストランの数が243から146に減少したことがわかりました。

段落5 一方、カジノ自体の悪影響の多くは誇張されています。現在、多くのギャンブルは自宅のオンラインで、またはゲーム機の設置が簡単なバーや賭博店で行われています。カジノが廃止されても、これはなくなりません。実際にカジノを閉鎖すると、問題が悪化する可能性があります。カジノのある地域では、犯罪、売春、破産、過剰な債務負担、自殺率の増加、児童虐待を含む家庭内暴力の発生率が高いと言われています。しかし、カジノが建設されているかどうかにかかわらず、このような問題は存在し、カジノの責任を正確に測定することは容易ではありません。確かに、カジノは時々、地元の支持を得ます。1999年の米国のある調査では、回答者の59%が地域のカジノ施設を支持しており、77%がカジノが地域経済に正の効果をもたらすことに同意したことがわかりました。

段落6 カジノは清濁併せた祝福であると考えると、政府はそれらをどのように規制すべきでしょうか?最初に採用できる対策には、許認可の厳格査定と、カジノの数と場所の制限が含まれます。カジノは、例えば地元住民と観光客を分けて、シンガポールのように、前者に高額な入場料を請求し、外国人旅行者に無料で入場を許可することで、優先権を与えることができます。さらに、掛金に制限を設けることができ、客が参加できる頻度を制限することができます。これらはすべて、シンガポールの依存症水準を制御するのに役立ちますが、それ自身に問題がないわけではありません。

段落7 許認可に関しては、場所を指定するものは、人員に関連するものよりも、効果的であることが証明されています。米国のほとんどの州には、誰がカジノを設立できるか、またはそこで働くことができるかに関する法律があります。それにもかかわらず、場所によって、カジノの従業員と組織犯罪間で噂​​されたつながりは、これまでと同様に強いようです。カジノの数と位置に制限を設定すると、より効果的です。ネバダ州を除き、カジノギャンブルを許可したすべての米国州は制限を設けています。たとえば、ニュージャージー州では、カジノは1つの場所、アトランティックシティに限定されています。コロラド州では、カジノは3つの小さなかつての鉱山町に限定されています。中西部の州では、カジノをしばしば水路沿いの場所に限定しています。それでも、これは収入が制限されているようです。これらの州では、ネバダ州のカジノ収入の4分の1さえも生み出していません。

段落8 実際には、顧客の行動を規制することは、社会的費用を最小限に抑えながら、収益を最大化するための、最も効果的な戦略となる可能性があります。シンガポールは、市民の訪問ごとに約80ドルを請求し、月に6回以上訪問する人を監視します。しかし、これは完全に効果的とはほど遠いようです。シンガポールの依存症治療サービスによると、シンガポールで依存症の治療を必要とする人の数は、カジノがオープンした2010年以来倍になりました。中毒者の総数が37%増加した中で、最も急激な増加はギャンブル依存症の人たちの間で見られました。シンガポールはこの問題を止めることはできませんでしたが、少なくとも行政対策が整っています。英国やオーストラリアなど、多くの国が追いつくのに苦労しています。

段落9 最終的に、ギャンブルを奨励または防止することは、政府の仕事ではないかもしれません。しかし、それが引き起こす可能性のある社会的損害を最小限に抑えることは、彼らの難しい責任です。許可するカジノの数、場所、許可する人、頻度、費用、利益は、重要問題です。

慶応 経済学部 2019 問題4


【大問4 条件英作文】

以下の問題文は, Bの留学についてのAとBの会話です。英語に直して,
解答用紙のA1,B1,A2,B2と記載されている行に書きなさい。

注意点:
日本語の表現をうまく英語にできない場合は,別の言い方に変えてから英語にしてみましょう。
(例) 難解 → 分かりにくい → hard to understand


【大問4 条件英作文 問題文】

A1: 来年パリに留学しなければ, クラブを続けて, リーグ優勝の経験ができたのに。

B1: でも,せっかくフランス語を3年も勉強したのに,それを使わないんじゃ 意味がないよね。

A2: ただ、パリにまるまる1年だから,少なくとも300万円位かかるでしょ。

B2: まあそうだけど,やっぱり犠牲なくして得るものなしだよね。

慶応 経済学部 2019 問題4 解答


【大問4 条件英作文 解答】

A1: If you would not study abroad in Paris, you could keep playing in the club team. You could experience and win the League championship.

B1: I have already studied French for three years. It is no use not speaking French actually.

A2: However, staying a whole year in Paris cost you at least about three hundred yen.

B2: You may be right. It is obvious that no sacrifice, no victory.

慶応 経済学部 2019 問題4 解説


【大問4 条件英作文 解説】

【大問4 条件英作文 来年パリに留学しなければ】

「しなければ」とあるのでIfを用いた仮定法を作りましょう。

If you would not study abroad in Paris

英作文ではdo notはdon'tと省略しないようにしましょう。

留学はstudy abroadです。

パリは都市名なので大文字で始めて、定冠詞theは付けません。


【大問4 条件英作文 クラブを続けて】

続けるとあるのでkeep ~ingの構文を用いましょう。

You could keep playing in the club team

keep the clubでは「クラブを経営する」というニュアンスになってしまいますので、keep playing in the clubとしましょう。



【大問4 条件英作文 リーグ優勝の経験ができたのに】

You could experience and win the League championship.

リーグ優勝はLeague championshipです。

名誉ある実績の場合は動詞win+目的語を用いてwin the League championshipとできます。


【大問4 条件英作文 せっかくフランス語を3年も勉強したのに】

I have already studied French for three years

「せっかく」は「もう」や「すでに」と同じ意味に解釈してalreadyと訳します。


【大問4 条件英作文 それを使わないんじゃ意味がないよね】

意味がないはIt is no use ~ingの構文を用いましょう。

It is no use not speaking French actually.

実際の場面で言語を「使う」のでspeak actuallyと訳します。actullyは「実際に」という意味でよく用いられる副詞です。


【大問4 条件英作文 ただ、パリにまるまる1年】

However, staying a whole year in Paris cost you at least about three hundred yen.

「ただ」は逆説を示しているので「しかしながら」と同じ意味でhoweverを用います。

「まるまる1年」は「まるまる1年の滞在」とstaying a whole yearとなります。

「少なくとも」はat leastです。

「300万円位かかる」は「お金がかかる」のでcost+人+費用の構文を用いてcost you three hundred yenとします。



【大問4 条件英作文 まあそうだけど】

「まあそうだけど」は相手の意見に譲歩していますのでYou may be rightと訳します。


【大問4 条件英作文 やっぱり】

「やっぱり」は強調の副詞なのでsurelyやIt is obvious thatを用います。

【大問4 条件英作文 犠牲なくして得るものなしだよね】

「〇〇なしでは〇〇なし」という構文は no 〇〇, no 〇〇 となります。

no sacrifice, no victory

慶応 経済学部 2019 問題5


【大問5 自由英作文】

以下の設問 (A), (B) の中から一つ選んで、大問1から大問3をもとにして,自分の意見を解答用紙に英語で書きなさい。注意点をよく読んでから書くこと。


(A)  Should the Japanese government encourage many more tourists to visit Japan? Why, or why not?

(B)  Should the Japanese government regulate the casino industry? How, and why?

【大問5 自由英作文 注意点】
:
(1) 箇条書きは不可。
(2) 自分の意見と異なる見解に言及し,それに反論すること。
(3) 大問1から大問3で言及されている見解やことがらを最低一つ引用して,自分の意見をまとめること。引用の仕方に関しては,下の例を参考にすること。

引用例:
• In her 2010 article “Against Zoos”, Faerrer claims, “Nature is not ours to control.” She argues that .... However, I strongly disagree with that statement, because ....

• I agree only to a certain extent with Eve N. Suzuki who argues, “Schools do not protect the rights of students enough” in the essay by Foane (2010). Her claim that X is Y may be true, but ....

• According to O’Werke (2012, paragraph 7), one option is indirect taxation. Although this argument ....


慶応 経済学部 2019 問題5 解答



【大問5 自由英作文 解答】


【大問5 自由英作文 解答(A)】
(導入) I think that the Japanese government should encourage many more tourists to visit Japan.

(理由) The reason is that tourists will support the Japanese economy.

(引用) According to Fortue's "Broadening Our Horizons", Tourists bring money to rural areas. Many scenic areas can anticipate no other viable sources of income, lacking the resources and connections needed for manufacturing or trade.

(理由) This is true of modern Japan. Declining birth rate and aging population are problems in Japan. Rural areas are remarkably losing young people. Rural areas have little industry and severe employment environment for youth. Depopulizing local government which can not afford its infrastructure is called genkai-syuraku in Japanese. To solve the problem, I propose the tourism industry.

(反論) Some people may say that the tourism industry creates only low-wage jobs. However, low-wage jobs are enough to live in rural areas because the house price is also cheap there.

(結論) From the reasons above,I believe that the Japanese government should encourage the tourism industry.

(158WORDS)





【大問5 自由英作文 解答(B】

(導入) I think that the Japanese government should not regulate the casino industry.

(理由) The reason is that the casino industry will support the Japanese economy.

(引用) I agree to a certain extent with Anne T Uppe who argues, “ the construction of casinos sometimes has negative influences on the revenues and job opportunities of other local industries, and may even destroy their development because gamblers did not stay in the riverboats long enough or eat at the local restaurants.” in the essay by Casinos High Stakes All Round(2017).

(理由) This can not be true of modern Japan. Her claim that casinos have negative influences may be true, but that is not the case in Japan. Japan has a specific culture. Many English-speaking casinos do not have their distinct culture.


(反論) Some people may say that the casino industry destroys other local industries. However, building casinos leads to extra investment in local infrastructure.

(結論) From the reasons above,I believe that the Japanese government should not regulate the casino industry.

(192WORDS)

慶応 経済学部 2019 問題5 解説


【大問5 自由英作文 解説】


【大問5 自由英作文 解説(A)】

【大問5 自由英作文 解説(A) 賛成反対の立場を明確にする】

自由英作文では、まずは賛成反対の意見を明確にしましょう。どっちつかずの意見は減点になります。

賛成の場合はI think that A shouldの構文を用います。
反対の場合はI think that A should notの構文を用います。

I think that the Japanese government should encourage many more tourists to visit Japan.


【大問5 自由英作文 解説(A) 理由述べる】

意見を述べたら、すぐに理由を簡潔に述べましょう。

理由を述べる場合はThe reason is thatの構文を用います。

The reason is that tourists will support the Japanese economy.


【大問5 自由英作文 解説(A) 記事を引用する】

自分の意見を強める文章を、引用しましょう。

引用にはAccording toの構文を用います。

According to Fortue's "Broadening Our Horizons", Tourists bring money
to rural areas. Many scenic areas can anticipate no other viable sources of income, lacking the resources and connections needed for manufacturing or trade.


【大問5 自由英作文 解説(A) 日本に当てはまる】

状況が「ぴったり当てはまる」はbe true ofを用います。

This is true of modern Japan.


【大問5 自由英作文 解説(A) 日本では少子高齢化が問題になっている】

Declining birth rate and aging population are problems in Japan.


【大問5 自由英作文 解説(A) 地方部では特に若者がいなくなっている】

Rural areas are remarkably losing young people.


【大問5 自由英作文 解説(A) 地方部には産業が少なく若者の雇用環境が厳しい】

Rural areas have little industry and severe employment environment for youth.


【大問5 自由英作文 解説(A) インフラが支えられない自治体は限界集落と呼ばれる】

Depopulizing local government which can not afford its infrastructure is called genkai-syuraku in Japanese.


【大問5 自由英作文 解説(A) 問題解決のために外国人向けの観光産業を提案する】

To solve the problem, I propose the tourism industry.


【大問5 自由英作文 解説(A) 反論を書く】

自分の意見への反論も想定して書きます。反論はsome people may say thatで始めます。

Some people may say that the tourism industry creates only low-wage jobs.


【大問5 自由英作文 解説(A) 反論への再反論を書く】

反論への再反論を書きます。再反論はHoweverで書き始めましょう

However, low-wage jobs are enough to live in rural areas because the house price is also cheap there.


【大問5 自由英作文 解説(A) 結論を書く】

導入・引用・展開・反論・再反論を書きましたので、最後は結論を書きます。

結論はFrom the reasons aboveで始めましょう。

From the reasons above,I believe that the Japanese government should encourage the tourism industry.





【大問5 自由英作文 解説(B)】

【大問5 自由英作文 解説(B) 賛成反対の立場を明確にする】

自由英作文では、まずは賛成反対の意見を明確にしましょう。どっちつかずの意見は減点になります。

賛成の場合はI think that A shouldの構文を用います。
反対の場合はI think that A should notの構文を用います。

I think that the Japanese government should not regulate the casino industry.


【大問5 自由英作文 解説(B) 理由述べる】

意見を述べたら、すぐに理由を簡潔に述べましょう。

理由を述べる場合はThe reason is thatの構文を用います。

The reason is that the casino industry will support the Japanese economy.


【大問5 自由英作文 解説(B) 記事を引用する】

自分の意見を強める文章を、引用しましょう。

引用にはI agree to a certain extent withの構文を用います。

I agree to a certain extent with Anne T Uppe who argues, “ the construction of casinos sometimes has negative influences on the revenues and job opportunities of other local industries, and may even destroy their development because gamblers did not stay in the riverboats long enough or eat at the local restaurants.” in the essay by Casinos High Stakes All Round(2017).

【大問5 自由英作文 解説(B) 日本に当てはまらない】

状況が「当てはまらない」はcan not be true ofを用います。

This can not be true of modern Japan. Her claim that casinos have negative influences may be true, but that is not the case in Japan.


【大問5 自由英作文 解説(B) 日本は独自文化を持っている】

Japan has a specific culture.

【大問5 自由英作文 解説(B) 多くの英語圏のカジノには独自文化が少ない】

Many English-speaking casinos do not have their distinct culture.


【大問5 自由英作文 解説(B) 日本はカジノと観光の魅力を掛け算できる】

Japan can multiply the attraction of the casino industry and the tourism industry.


【大問5 自由英作文 解説(B) 観光地の隣にカジノを建設する】

We build casinos around tourist spots.


【大問5 自由英作文 解説(B) 観光客は娯楽体験と文化体験を同時に楽しめる】

Tourists will enjoy both entertainment experience and culture experience.


【大問5 自由英作文 解説(B) 反論を書く】

自分の意見への反論も想定して書きます。反論はSome people may say thatで始めます。

Some people may say that the casino industry destroys other local industries.


【大問5 自由英作文 解説(B) 反論への再反論を書く】

反論への再反論を書きます。再反論はHoweverで書き始めましょう

However, building casinos leads to extra investment in local infrastructure.


【大問5 自由英作文 解説(B) 結論を書く】

導入・引用・展開・反論・再反論を書きましたので、最後は結論を書きます。

結論はFrom the reasons aboveで始めましょう。

From the reasons above,I believe that the Japanese government should not regulate the casino industry.

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