２ Read this article and answer the questions below.
For many people, the great paradox of the Cold War was that it was at once utterly terrifying and strangely glamorous. One example tells a wider story. Almost exactly 50 years ago, the dust was still settling after the high-risk confrontation of the Cuban Missile Crisis, when the world had come closer than ever before to nuclear destruction. A year later, the print media reported a new twist in the nuclear game with the news that France's Mirage 4 bombers had just come into operation. Yet the newspapers in October 1963 devoted rather more attention to a very different story-a second cinematic appearance for a secret agent who, as one critic put it, "acts out our less respectable fantasies without ever going too far.” The film was From Russia With Love; the hero, of course, was that supreme representative of British heroism, James Bond - Agent 007.
Today, Bond has become such a familiar personification of British style that it is easy to lose sight of his Cold War origins. In Ian Fleming's early novels, Bond was explicitly an instrument for bashing the Communists. On the screen, however, Bond's Cold War connections were ( A ) : his early enemies, for example, work for the fictional international crime network SPECTRE, not (as in the books) the Soviet intelligence agency SMERSH, while the films' obsession with novelty, fashion, and design felt a long way from Fleming's unbending conservatism. Yet in its way, even the aggressive product placement of the Bond films was a weapon in the wider Cold War.
As novelist and former spy John le Carré, one of Bond's biggest critics, remarked, the films promoted nothing so much as the "consumer-goods ethic”-a central element of the economic miracle that had transformed everyday life in Britain during the 1950s and 1960s. For le Carré, Bond's gadgets, "the things on our desk that could explode, our ties that could suddenly take photographs, give to a colorless and materialistic existence a kind of magic.” But for many ordinary people, the life le Carré dismissed as tastelessly materialistic actually represented an amazing advance towards comfort and prosperity something the backward Communist economies could never provide. In that respect, Bond's gadgets really did make a difference.
The West's cultural offensive was not, of course, limited to the cinema. Even modern art did not ( B ) political pressures: during the 1950s and 1960s, American abstract-expressionist painters such as Jackson Pollock, Mark Rothko, and Willem de Kooning were heavily sponsored by the CIA, who hoped to advertise the freedom and creativity of the capitalist system. For my money, though, the most powerful British expressions of the Cold War came on the small screen.
The conflict came at the same time as the rise of TV as a mass medium; indeed, millions of ordinary people experienced it above all as a television phenomenon. It was the BBC's groundbreaking adaptation of George Orwell's novel Nineteen Eighty-Four, for example, that fixed in many people's minds the feel of a totalitarian society: the greyness, the strict social order, the atmosphere of fear. Conservative Party politicians warned that ”many of the inhuman practices depicted in Nineteen Eighty Four are already in common use under totalitarian regimes” and praised “the sincere attempts of the BBC to bring home to the British people the logical and soul-destroying consequences of the surrender of their freedom."
Not all the BBC's contributions to the Cold War, however, went down quite so well with the politicians of the day. In 1965, the brilliantly talented director Peter Watkins made a 50-minute docudrama about the consequences of a nuclear attack, The War Game. Watkins pulled no punches: at the end, we see British soldiers burning dead bodies, while criminals clash with the police during food riots. But after talking to government officials, the BBC decided not to show it-a sign, many critics thought, of its surrender to Establishment interests. That the film won an Academy Award the following year only deepened the BBC's embarrassment, and to many viewers' intense frustration, The War Game was not shown on British television for 20 years.
By then, however, the BBC had regained its reputation with perhaps the most disturbing Cold War fiction of all - Threads, which explores the impact on two families in the city of Sheffield of a nuclear attack. I was too young to watch it at the time, since in 1984 I was only 10, but I can still remember the terrifying cover of the Radio Times, which showed a shotgun-carrying traffic warden, his grim face wrapped in a bloody bandage. Indeed, even now I challenge anybody to watch Threads all the way through to its shocking science-fiction-style conclusion and sleep easily afterwards. Hundreds of viewers wrote to the BBC, many commending the film's writer, Barry Hines, and director, Mick Jackson, on their courage and honesty.
The great irony was that even as half the population were telling polls they expected to see World War Three in their lifetime, the end of the Cold War was only a few years away. For decades, ( C ) the Red Menace, with many people genuinely afraid that the Soviet version of modernity would prove more efficient, more ruthless, and more lasting than our own. Yet by the 1980s, the Communist model had proved ineffective. While millions of British consumers were shopping for new microwaves, video recorders, and compact-disc players, ordinary Soviet citizens were lining up for bread.
( D ) It was little wonder, then, that the Soviet authorities regarded pop music with such complete fear.
In the Eighties, such popular musical artists as Judas Priest, 10cc, and Pink Floyd were criticized for racist anticommunism, neofascism, and “misrepresenting Soviet foreign policy." So when the West Berlin authorities organized a three-day concert to mark the city's 750th anniversary in June 1987, it was both appropriate and revealing that the headliners were British: David Bowie, Eurythmics, and, on the final night, Genesis, whose lead singer, Phil Collins, had memorized a few German phrases for the occasion.
On the other side of the Wall, hundreds of young East Berliners climbed trees, clambered up chimneys, and packed onto balconies to get a look at their Western idols. Some brave souls even danced in front of the Soviet embassy, leading to battles with the East German police. All across the city, crowds chanted: “The Wall must go.” They did not have long to wait; just over two years later, the borders opened, the Wall came down, and the Cold War was over. Almost overnight, the shadow of the bomb had been lifted. Perhaps it is only a slight exaggeration, then, to say that the man who really ended the Cold War was not Ronald Reagan or Mikhail Gorbachev-but Phil Collins.
Adapted from https://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/10441108/How-pop-culture-helped-win-the-Cold-War.html
'How pop culture helped win the Cold War' by Dominic Sandbrook.
１ Choose the most suitable answer from those below to fill in blank space (A).
(a) criticized by the CIA
(b) expressed by his criminal behavior
(c) pushed into the background
(d) reflected in his fashionable suits
(e) revealed by Soviet agents
2 Choose the most suitable answer from those below to complete the following sentence. The writer notes that John le Carré criticized James Bond's spy gadgets because he considered them to be
(a) childish devices with no practical purpose.
(b) outdated examples of modern technology.
(c) shallow symbols of Western materialism.
(d) too expensive for ordinary consumers.
(e) too important to be shown in a popular film.
3 Choose the most suitable answer from those below to fill in blank space (B).
(a) account for
(b) deal with
(c) depend on
(d) escape from
(e) respond to
4 Choose the most suitable answer from those below to complete the following sentence. One point that the writer makes about the TV docudrama The War Game is that
(a) British politicians thought that it too closely resembled the novel Nineteen Eighty-Four.
(b) food riots broke out in Britain soon after the BBC showed the program.
(c) some critics thought that the BBC gave in to government pressure not to show it in Britain.
(d) the director was strongly criticized for expressing totalitarian political views.
(e) the program only received an Academy Award 20 years after it was shown on TV.
5 Use six of the seven words below to fill in blank space (C) in the best way. Indicate your choices for the second, fourth, and sixth positions.
６ Choose the most suitable order of sentences from those below to fill in blank space (D).
(a) Ever since the days of the Beatles, for example, British pop and rock music had been finding
their way into the Soviet bloc, if only in the form of second-rate cover versions by the state
approved record label Melodiya.
(b) Meanwhile, thanks partly to the worldwide success of our pop culture, Western capitalism had
become a guiding light for the oppressed peoples of Eastern Europe.
(c) To young people starved of liberty and eager for a better life, British music represented not just freedom and fun, but modernity and self-expression.
7 Choose the most suitable answer from those below to complete the following sentence. Regarding the 1980s, the writer suggests that
(a) fear of nuclear weapons increased rapidly after the concert in West Berlin.
(b) increasing admiration for Western culture helped decide the outcome of the Cold War.
(c) the Cold War ended as a result of a military clash between the U.S. and the Soviet Union.
(d) the East German police were too gentle with participants in the 1987 protest.
(e) the West won the Cold War because of its superiority in material resources.