# 早稲田大学 理工学部 傾向対策解答解説 2018

## 早稲田大学 理工学部 傾向対策解答解説 2018

#### 英語 過去問 早稲田 理工学部 2018

【大学】：早稲田大学
【学部】：基幹理工学部・創造理工学部・先進理工学部
【年度】：２０１８年

【大問】：１
【形式】：適語補充＋文章理解
【表題】：現代移民理論の初期理論からの反省　Contemporary migration theories as reflected in their founding texts
【作者】：ビクター・ピシェ　Piché Victor
【対策】：説明文。長文を読み進めながら適語補充し、まとめて内容理解が問われます。長文では、筆者の異なる３つの文章が連続し、それぞれの異なる視点からの情報分析が要求されます。内容は、労働移民の数量はどのように理論家かされてきたのか、理論の嚆矢から始まり、理論の歴史的な発展が描かれます。日本でも労働移民政策が注目を集めており、やや時事的な出題と言えるでしょう。また、理工学部といえども、自然科学分野だけではなく、このように社会科学分野からの文章の出題があることに注意しましょう。
【用語】：移民　経済構造　人的資本
【目安時間】：３０分

【大問】：２
【形式】：適語補充
【表題】：数学入門代数解析　Introductory Mathematics:Algebra and Analysis
【作者】：スミス・ゴフリー　Smith Geoffrey
【対策】：随筆文。長文を読み進めながら適語補充します。文章理解の設問はなく、全体を文法問題として考えた方が良いでしょう。内容は、数学の入門書で、英語で数学の用語を理解できていると、文章が読みやすくみなります。理工学部受験者は、数学・理科の用語が、英語でどのように表現されるかを学んでおくことが有効でしょう。
【用語】：数学　代数　入門
【目安時間】：１０分

【大問】：３
【形式】：適語補充
【表題】：バカでもわかる統計学　Statistics for Dummies
【作者】：ラムゼイ・デボラ　Rumsey Deborah
【対策】：説明文。長文を読み進めながら適語補充と文章の順序を解答します。内容は、統計学と記憶理論です。統計学の用語を英語で理解しておくと読みやすいでしょう。
【用語】：統計学　平均値　記憶
【目安時間】：２０分

【大問】：４
【形式】：適語補充＋文章理解
【表題】：デジタル回路とコンピューターデザイン　Digital Logic and Computer Design
【作者】：マノ・モリス　Mano Morris
【対策】：説明文。長文を読み進めながら適語補充と文章の順序を解答します。内容は、論理回路と不動産購入で、どちらも数理的な理解が求められます。英語でのデータの読み取りを訓練しておくと良いでしょう。
【用語】：２値回路　論理値　不動産購入
【目安時間】：１５分

【大問】：５
【形式】：適語補充
【表題】：ー
【作者】：ー
【対策】：会話文。会話文を読みながら空欄にふさわしい語句を補充する。英語の慣用句や会話表現をまとめておきたい。場面は「図書館」「挨拶」「英英辞典」が設定されます。
【用語】：会話表現　英英辞典　語句定義
【目安時間】：１５分

## 早稲田理工学部 2018問題1

Read Text I, Text II, and Text III. Choose the best option from a - d for questions 1 – 15, according to the texts.

Text I

[1] People move for different reasons. For example, Mexicans who immigrate to the United States often do so for economic reasons — they search for increased employment prospects or to earn higher wages. Some immigrants move to escape violence in their home country. A typical example can be seen in the Syrian conflict, where civilians have been subject to on-going attacks, and public infrastructures have been destroyed. Considering the various reasons for people to move, no single theory can provide a comprehensive explanation for the migration process.

[2] Although a comprehensive theory is unattainable, it remains a crucial task of researchers to explain why people migrate. Theories of migration are important because they can help us understand population movements within their wider political and economic contexts. For example, if out-migration from Third World nations is shown to be a result of economic problems caused by the global economy, then such migration could be managed with better international economic agreements instead of restrictive immigration acts. Indeed, rather than slowing Mexican in-migration to the United States, termination of the bracero program, which guaranteed legal work with a minimum wage for farm workers, actually increased the amount of illegal immigration because (a) it worsened Mexican poverty.

[3] Ernest Ravenstein is widely regarded as the earliest migration theorist. Ravenstein, an English geographer, used census data from England and Wales to develop his "Laws of Migration" (1889). He concluded that migration was governed by a "push-pull” process; that is, unfavorable conditions in one place (oppressive laws, heavy taxation, etc.) "push" people out, and favorable conditions in an external location "pull" them out. Ravenstein's laws stated that the primary cause for migration was better external economic opportunities; the volume of migration decreases as distance increases; migration occurs in stages instead of one long move; population movements are in both directions, and migration differentials (e.g., gender, social class, age) influence a person's mobility.

[4] Many theorists have followed in Ravenstein's footsteps, and the dominant theories in contemporary scholarship are more or less variations of his conclusions. Everett Lee (1966) (b) reformulated Ravenstein's theory to give more emphasis to internal (or push) factors. Lee also outlined the impact that intervening obstacles have on the migration process. He argued that variables such as distance, physical and political barriers, and having dependents can impede or even prevent migration. Lee pointed out that the migration process is selective ( A ) differentials such as age, gender, and social class affect how persons respond to push-pull factors, and these conditions also shape their ability to overcome intervening obstacles. Furthermore, personal factors such as a person's education, knowledge of a potential receiver population, family ties, and the like can encourage or discourage migration.

[5] Several theories have been developed to treat international patterns of migration on their own terms, but these too are variants of push-pull theory. First, neoclassical economic theory (Sjaastad 1962; Todaro 1969) suggests that international migration is related to the global supply and demand for labor. Nations with scarce labor supply and high demand will have high wages that pull immigrants in from nations with a surplus of labor. Second, segmented labor-market theory (Piore 1979) argues that First World economies are structured so as to require a certain level of immigration. This theory suggests that developed economies are dualistic: they have a primary market of secure, well-remunerated work and a secondary market of low-wage work. Segmented labor-market theory argues that immigrants are recruited to fill these jobs that are necessary for the overall economy to function but are avoided by the native-born population because of the poor working conditions associated with the secondary labor market. Third, world-systems theory (Sassen 1988) argues that international migration is a by-product of global capitalism. Contemporary patterns of international migration tend to be from the periphery (poor nations) to the core (rich nations) ( A ) factors associated with industrial development in the First World generated structural economic problems, and thus push factors, in the Third World.

Questions 1 - 9 refer to Text I.

1. What does (a) it in Paragraph 2. refer to?

a. Mexican in-migration to the United States
b. termination of the bracero program
c. the bracero program
d. the amount of illegal immigration

2. What does the word (b) reformulated in Paragraph 4 mean?

a. expressed an idea in a different way
b. abandoned an idea completely
c. redeveloped new ideas
d. logically proved an idea to be true

3. Which of the following best fits in the two blanks labeled A in Paragraph 4 and Paragraph 5?

a. because
b. although
c. while
d. if

4. Which of the following is an example of a "pull" factor?

a. a lack of water
b. having children
c. higher wages
d. poor working conditions

5. Which of the following theories emphasizes “push” factors?

a. Ravenstein's theory
b. Lee's theory
c. neoclassical theory
d. segmented labor-market theory

6. According to Ravenstein's theory, why is it that “termination of the bracero program actually increased the amount of illegal immigration”?

a. The workers who could not go back to Mexico became illegal immigrants.
b. The physical barriers were increased, resulting in more people entering the United States illegally.
c. The existing farm workers had no money to return home, so they had to work illegally.
d. Mexican workers could no longer earn money to send back home, so the push factor in Mexico became greater.

7. What do the theories introduced in Text I all have in common?
a. They use push or pull factors.
b. They emphasize economic factors.
c. They are comprehensive.
d. They can be understood by supply and demand.

8. In segmented labor-market theory, why is immigration necessary for the economy to function?
a. The labor market is dualistic.
b. The primary market provides poor working conditions.
c. There is a scarce labor supply.
d. The native population wants good working conditions.

9. The paragraphs in Text I can be divided into three parts: Part I=[1][2], Part II=[3], and Part III=[4][5]. Which of the following best explains the roles of these three parts?

a. Part I introduces the topic of migration, Part II states the general theory of migration, and Part III adds details to the general theory.
b. Part I discusses the need for migration theories, Part II discusses the main theory, and Part III discusses developments of the main theory.
c. Part I explains the migration process, Part II discusses the most influential migration theorist, and Part III introduces other migration theorists.
d. Part I discusses the migration experience, Part II discusses the "push-pull” process, and Part III discusses other factors involved in the migration experience.

Text II

One of the very first explanatory approaches to both internal and international migration focused on individual decision-making. Before deciding to leave their place of residence, individuals examine the costs and benefits of migrating. This approach is often associated with the paper by Larry Sjaastad published in 1962, in which he sought to identify the costs and returns and to determine the "rate of return on resources allocated to migration”.

He sees migration as an "investment increasing the productivity of human resources, an investment which has costs and which also renders returns". Costs can be broken down into money and non-money costs. Without doubt, Sjaastad's greatest contribution was to introduce the notion of human capital into migration theory to get around the problem of estimating returns.

For Sjaastad, “it is particularly useful to employ the human capital concept and to view migration, training, and experience as investments in the human agent". The basic idea of his approach is explicit, namely that the analysis of private costs and returns is valid only in the case of voluntary migration which, in a competitive economy, satisfies the requirement of "optimum," or best, allocation of resources.

Sjaastad's paper laid the groundwork for the general framework for migration presented by Everett Lee in 1966. Under this framework, migrant characteristics provide a means to explain the volume of migration, migration streams and counter-streams. He begins by hypothesizing that migration is the result of an individual calculation based on positive factors at destination and negative factors at origin.

Lee's model introduces the original concept of intervening opportunities between the places of origin and destination. He points out that it is not so much the actual factors at origin and destination as the perception of these factors which results in migration.

Among the factors influencing the migration decision, Lee mentions personal contacts and sources of information about the situation at destination. This underlies the notion of migration networks that was to become central to migration theory from the 1980s.

Questions 10 - 12 refer to Text I and Text II.

10. Why did Sjaastad regard migration as an investment?

a. Costs and benefits of migration are calculated.
b. Migration requires money and non-money costs.
c. Migration has costs which lead to returns.
d. Migration depends on individual decision-making.

11. What is the major difference between Ravenstein's theory and Lee's theory?

a. Ravenstein's theory emphasizes positive and negative factors, but Lee's theory does not.
b. Ravenstein's theory establishes the general laws of migration, but Lee's theory does not.
c. Lee's theory develops the concept of migration networks, but Ravenstein's theory does not.
d. Lee's theory takes intervening opportunities into consideration, but Ravenstein's theory does not.

12. What information about Lee's theory is provided in Text II, but not in Text I?
a. Negative factors at destination are important.
b. Intervening factors and obstacles can have an impact.
c. The perception of the factors is more important.
d. Personal factors can encourage or discourage migration.

Text III
Ms Liu was a forerunner of a new wave of Chinese immigrants to Australia's oldest and biggest city. Hong Kong once supplied most of Australia's Chinese settlers, but over the past few years the pattern has shifted. Now it is the rising middle classes from mainland China who go there, looking for a cleaner, more relaxed lifestyle. About 4% of Sydney's 4.6 million people were born in China.

The China-born population in Hurstville, a suburb of Sydney, is about a third of its total and almost half its residents claim Chinese ancestry. Sydney's first Chinese immigrants arrived as farm workers in the 1840s. The gold rush a decade later drew more. “Celestial City: Sydney's Chinese story", an exhibition at the Museum of Sydney, shows what happened next. By the 1880s, political fears of a "Chinese invasion” sparked anti-Asian immigration laws known as the White Australia policy, which lasted well into the 20th century.

But China's emergence as Australia's biggest trading partner, and its largest source of foreign university students, has revolutionized the relationship. In the fiscal year 2011-12, more than 2,000 Chinese people obtained permanent residence in Australia.

Most of them were from the new middle classes. Then, in late 2012, Australia launched a "significant investor" visa, aimed at China's super-rich. To get one, people need 5 million Australian dollars to sink in "qualifying" investments. After investing for four years, successful applicants can apply for permanent residence. The visas are called "subclass 188" and "subclass 888". As the number eight represents luck and prosperity in Chinese culture, the visa's main target is obvious. More than 90% of 702 applicants so far have been Chinese.

Many of the immigrants are media-shy. But their influence is visible in Chatswood, another formerly Anglo-Australian suburb. Towers of apartments, many owned by Chinese immigrants, now overlook the Edwardian-era stone and timber bungalows. Shops on the main street are crammed with Chinese noodles and vegetables, and Mandarin is the chief language among shoppers. Stacks of Chinese newspapers outnumber English ones.

Yan Zhang, who settled in Sydney after studying at Macquarie University, orders a lunch of pork dumplings at the New Shanghai restaurant. He reckons the new wave of middle-class Chinese immigrants, who arrive with residence already granted, come to Australia for the same reasons he did. "They want to make life more enjoyable and more secure," he says. "If I'd returned to China, I'd have had to be more selfish to survive."

Questions 13-15 refer to Text I, Text II, and Text III.

13. What is the "pull" factor for the "new wave of Chinese immigrants in Australia?

a. better lifestyle
b. working opportunities
c. political freedom
d. higher education

14. What is an intervening obstacle for the new wave of Chinese immigrants to obtain the new visa?

a. White Australia policy
b. the high investment
c. low English proficiency
d. the fears of a Chinese invasion

15. What is an advantage of Lee's theory in explaining the cases of middle-class Chinese immigrants in Australia?

a. It leads us to the conclusion that the global economy causes problems.
b. It provides a theoretical background for Australia to start a new visa program.
c. It provides an effective way to manage migration processes.
d. It helps us understand why migration processes are selective.

１　b
２　a
３　a
４　c
５　b
６　d
７　a
８　d
９　b
１０　c
１１　d
１２　c
１３　a
１４　b
１５　d

## 早稲田理工学部 2018問題1 解説

【問題について】

１　メキシコの貧困を悪化させたのは termination of the bracero program です。
２　reformatation は「再び公式化する」なので a が正解です。 c　は惜しいですが新しい知識を付け加えたわけではないので不適当です。
３　いずれの空欄も、ものごとの理由を説明しているので because が正解です。
４　pull は移民を引き付ける魅力なので higher wages (より高い賃金) が正解となります。
５　Lee reformulated Ravenstein's theory to give more emphasis to internal or push factors とあるので b が正解となります。
６　ブラセロプログラムの廃止によってメキシコの貧困が悪化したとあるので d が正解となります。
７　ラベンシュタインの理論は政治的な要素にも言及しているので、経済学的な要素だけではありません。 a が正解となります。
８　移民が割り当てられる仕事は、現地の人間がやりたがらないが経済を機能させるのに必要な職種なので d が正解となります。
９　Part I では移民の理論が必要性が述べられていますので b が正解となります。
１０　an investment which has costs and which also renders returns とあるので c が正解となります。
１１　Lee's model introduces the original concept of intervening opportunities とあるので d が正解となります。
１２　it is not so much the actual factors at origin and destination as the perception of these factors とあるので c が正解となります。
１３　They want to make life more enjoyable and more secure とあるので a が正解となります。
１４　移民障壁は過去のものではなく現在のものを選びましょう。 b が正解となります。
１５　リーの移民理論では社会階層によって移民の機会が変動することが指摘されています。したがって、リーの理論はオーストラリアの中国人移民が特定の富裕層である事実を説明できています。正解は d となります。

【文章について】

【bracero program】
ブラセロ計画では、アメリカ合衆国の南部農業地帯で、労働力不足に対応するために、メキシコからの出稼ぎ労働力を利用します。国境を越えた不法移民の問題と合わせて、しばしば登場します。

【dependent】
dependent は法律用語では扶養家族となります。

How many dependents do you have?

I am my father's dependent.

If I make more than 1 million yen, I'll stop being my husband's dependent.

I have no dependents.

I became my son's dependent.

【segmented labor-market theory】

【human capital】

【White Australia policy】

【重要表現】
illegal immigration　不法移民
scholarship　学界・奨学金
on their own terms　自分流に
broken down into　分解する
human agent　人間主体
get around　うまくやりすごす
underlie　根底にある
forerunner　先駆者
timber　木材
Anglo　白人の
reckon　考える・数える

## 早稲田理工学部 2018問題1 全訳

Text I

[1] 人々はさまざまな理由で移動する。たとえば、米国に移住するメキシコ人は、経済的な理由からしばしばそうしている。彼らは雇用見通しを増やしたり、より高い賃金を求めたりする。いくつかの移民は自国の暴力から逃れるために移動する。典型的な例は、シリア紛争に見られ、そこでは市民は継続的な攻撃を受け、公共インフラは破壊されている。人々が移動するさまざまな理由を考慮すると、単一の理論では移民の過程を包括的に説明することはできない。

[2] 包括的な理論には到達できなくとも、なぜ人々が移住するのかを説明することは、依然として研究者にとって重要な課題だ。移住の理論は、彼らがより広範な政治的および経済的状況において人口移動を理解するのを助けることができるため、重要だ。例えば、第3世界諸国からの移民が世界経済に起因する経済問題の結果であると示されている場合、移民を制限する法律ではなく、より良い国際経済協定でそのような移住を管理できる。農業労働者の最低賃金での法的な仕事を保証するブラセロプログラムの廃止は、実際、米国へのメキシコからの移住を減らすのではなく、メキシコの貧困を悪化させたので、実際は不法移民の数を増やした。

[3] アーネスト・ラヴェンシュタインは、最も初期の移民理論家として広く認められている。ラヴェンシュタインは英国の地理学者で、イングランドとウェールズの国勢調査データを使って｢移住の法則｣を発展させた。彼は、移民は「プッシュプル」過程によって支配されていると結論づけた。すなわち、ある場所での不利な条件（圧政な法律、重課税など）は人々を「プッシュ」し、外部の好条件はそれらを「プル」する。
ラベンシュタインの法則は、移民の主要原因は外部経済の機会が増えることだと主張した。移民の量は距離が増すにつれて減少し、1回の長い移動の代わりに段階的に移動し、人口移動は両方向に存在し、移民の変数（例えば、性別・社会階級・年齢など）が人の移動しやすさに影響する。

[4] 多くの理論家は、ラベンシュタインの足跡を追い、現代の学界の支配的理論は、彼の結論から多かれ少なかれ派生したものだ。
エバレット・リー(1966)は、内部（またはプッシュ）要因をより重視するために、ラベンシュタインの理論を再構成した。リーは、介入する障害物が移民過程に及ぼす影響についても概説した。彼は、距離、物理的および政治的障壁、扶養家族を持つことなどの変数が、移民を推進したり、妨害さえできると主張している。
リーは移民過程が選択的だと指摘した。なぜなら年齢、性別、社会階級などの変数が、人がどのようにプッシュ・プル要因に反応するかに影響し、これらの条件は介入する障害を克服する能力を形成するからだ。
さらに、個人の教育、潜在的な受容人口の知識、家族とのつながりなどの個人的な要因は、移民が促進できたり、妨害できたりする。

1962; Todaro 1969）は、国際的な移住は、地球規模の労働力の需要供給と関係していると示唆している。労働供給が不足し高い需要を抱える国々には、余剰労働者を抱える国から移民を引きいれる高い賃金がある。

Text II

スジャスタアドにとって、「人的資本の概念を採用し、人間主体への投資としての移住、訓練、経験を見ることは特に有用だ」彼の手法の基本的な発想は明白だ。つまり、個人の費用と利益の分析は、資源の「最高」または最適配分の条件を満たす競争市場における自発的な移民の場合にのみ、有効だ。

スジャスタアドの論文は、1966年にエバレット・リーがが提示した移民の一般的な枠組みへの基盤は築いた。この枠組みのもとで、移民の特徴は、移民の量、移民の流れおよび逆流を説明する手段を提供する。彼は、移民は目的地における加点要素と始発地における減点要素に基づく個人の計算の結果だと仮定することから始まる。

リーのモデルは、始発地と目的地の間に干渉する機会の独自の概念を導入している。彼は、移民という結果となるのは、始発地と目的地における実際の要素よりも、それらの要素の認識だと指摘する。

リーは、移民の決定に影響を与える要素の中で、個人的な連絡先や目的地の状況に関する個人の交流や情報源に言及している。これは、1980年代から移民理論の中心となる移民ネットワークの概念に基づいています。

Text III

リュウさんは、オーストラリア最古の大都市への中国人移民の新たな波の先駆けだった。香港はかつてオーストラリアの中華人移民の大部分を供給してきたが、ここ数年の間に類型が変わった。現在、中国本土から台頭する中産階級があり、清潔でより開放的な生活を求めてやってくる。シドニーの４６０万の人口のうち約4％が中国生まれだ。

シドニー郊外のハーストビルでは、人口は、その全体の約3分の1は中国生まれで、その半数近くの住民が中国の祖先だと主張している。シドニー初の中国人移民は1840年代に農業労働者として到着した。10年後のゴールドラッシュは、より多くを引き寄せた。シドニー博物館で展示された「天空都市：シドニーの中国語」は、次に何が起こったかを示す。1880年代にかけて「中国の侵略」に対する政治的な恐怖が、白豪主義として知られる反アジア移民法に火をつけ、２０世紀までよく続いた。

しかし、オーストラリアの最大の貿易相手国としての中国の台頭と、留学生の最大の出身源は、この関係に革命をもたらした。2011-12年度には、2.000人以上の中国人がオーストラリアで永住権を取得した。彼らのほとんどは新しい中流階級出身だった。その後、2012年末、オーストラリアは、中国の超富裕層を対象とした｢重要な投資家｣ビザを開始しました。取得するためには「適格」な投資へと投じるための500万オーストラリアドルが必要だ。ビザは「サブクラス188」と「サブクラス888」と呼ばれ、八は中国文化の幸運と繁栄を象徴しているため、ビザの主な対象は明らかだ。702人の応募者の90％以上は、これまでは中国人だ。

マッコーリー大学で学んだ後、シドニーに移住したヤン・チャンは、ニュー上海のレストランで豚肉の餃子のランチを注文する。彼は中流階級の中国人移民の新しい波を、既に与えられた居住地に到着し、彼がしたのと同じ理由でオーストラリアに来ると、考えている。「彼らは人生をより楽しく安全にしたいと考えている」彼は言う。「もし私が中国に戻ったら、生き残るためにもっと自己主張をしなくてはならないだろう」

## 早稲田理工学部 2018問題2

Read the text and rearrange the seven words in 1-5 in the correct order. Then choose the option from a -d that contains the third and fifth words.

This book is a gentle and relaxed introduction to the two branches of pure mathematics, algebra and analysis, which dominate the early stages of the subject (1) (undergraduates / as / to / in / is / it / taught) many countries. It is not a substitute for more advanced texts, and does not claim to be comprehensive. It should, I hope, be easy to read, and to this end the style is decidedly more colloquial than is traditional in textbooks.

Thus this is not a book in the relentless theorem-proof style; it contains explanatory commentary. The (2) (pure / express / themselves / ways / mathematicians / which / in), and the step-by-step nature of the subject, may make pure mathematics seem intimidating to a beginner.

The mathematical mode of expression and the deductive method are vital to pure mathematics. We wish to explore strange geometries, new algebraic systems, and infinite dimensional spaces. There is no point in embarking on this enterprise unless we are prepared to be very precise, since otherwise, no-one will have (3) (are / about / what / talking / idea / we/ any).

These exotic spaces and objects are not part of everyday experience, unlike, for example a dog. If we mention that "there is a dog in the garden", we do not expect the response "what is a dog, what is a garden, what does is mean in this sentence, why have you used the indefinite article a and what is the contribution of the word there?" We know a lot about dogs and gardens, and do not need to put the sentence under (4) (order / meaning / understand / scrutiny / in / to / the).

However, if instead someone says "every linear group is either virtually solvable, or contains a free subgroup of rank 2", then either you have to live in a world where these terms are as familiar as dogs and gardens, or you have to take the remark apart, and (5) (you / part / every / until / analyze / it / of) understand what it asserts.
[Adapted from Smith, Geoffrey (1998) Introductory Mathematics: Algebra and Analysis, Springer.]

1.
b.　　3rd:to　5th:is
c.　　3rd:is　5th:to

2.
a.　　3rd:which　5th:mathematicians
b.　　3rd:express　5th:pure
c.　　3rd:mathematicians　5th:which
d.　　3rd:pure　5th:express

3.
b.　　3rd:what　5th:are
d.　　3rd:are　5th:what

4.
a.　　3rd:understand　5th:order
b.　　3rd:the　5th:meaning
c.　　3rd:meaning　5th:the
d.　　3rd:order　5th:understand

5.
a.　　3rd:it　5th:part
b.　　3rd:you　5th:every
c.　　3rd:part　5th:it
d.　　3rd:every　5th:you

１　c
２　a
３　b
４　d
５　c

## 早稲田理工学部 2018問題2 解説

【問題について】
１　as it is taught to undergraduates in
２　ways in which pure mathematicians express themselves
３　any idea what we are talking about
４　scrutiny in order to understand the meaning
５　analyze every part of it until you

【重要表現】
to this end　この目的のために
colloquial　口語的に
under scrutiny　精査する
linear group　線型群
virtually solvable　実質的可解群
free subgroup　自由部分群
take apart　分解する

## 早稲田理工学部 2018問題2 全訳

この本は、多くの国の学部生に教えられているように、科目の初期段階を占めている純粋数学の２つの派生分野である代数・解析のやさしくわかりやすい入門書だ。これはより高度な内容の代わりではなく、包括的だとも主張していない。これは、私が思うに、読みやすくあるべきで、その目的のために、この様式はわざと伝統的な教科書よりも口語調にしてある。

したがって、これは、徹底した定理証明様式の本ではない。それは説明的な解説を含んでいる。純粋な数学者が自分自身を表現するやり方と、その段階的な性質は、純粋数学を、初心者には取り組みにくく見えるようにしている。

これらの異質な空間や物体は、例えば犬のようではなく、日常の経験の一部ではない。
「庭に犬がいる」と言えば、「犬とは何か、庭とは何か、この文は何を意味するのか、なぜ不定冠詞 a を使ったのか、その言葉はそこにどのように貢献するのか｣という反応を私たちは期待しない。私たちは犬や庭についてたくさん知っているし、その意味を理解するために文章を精査する必要はない。

しかし、代わりに誰かが「すべての線形群が実質的に解決可能であるか、またはランク2の自由な部分群を含んでいる」と言うならば、その時は、あなたはこれらの用語が犬や庭ほどよく知られている世界に生きているべきか、あるいは、その発言を分解して、それが主張することを理解できるようになるまで、すべての部分を分析しなければならない。

## 早稲田理工学部 2018問題3

Answer the questions in Sections A and B

Section A: Read the passage and choose the best option from a - d for questions 1 - 6.

Standard deviation refers to a quantity expressing by how much the members of a group differ from the mean value for the group. It can be difficult to interpret as a single number on its own. Basically, a small standard deviation means that the values in ( I ) statistical data set are close to the mean of ( II ) data set, on average, and a large standard deviation means that the values in ( III ) data set are farther away from the mean, on average.
A small standard deviation can be a goal in certain situations where the results are restricted, for example, in product manufacturing and quality control. A particular type of car part that has to be two centimeters in diameter to fit properly had better not have a very big standard deviation during the manufacturing process. A big standard deviation in this case would mean that lots of parts end up in the trash because (a) they don't fit right; either that or the cars will have problems down the road.
But in situations where you just observe and record data, a large standard deviation isn't necessarily a bad thing; it just reflects a large amount of variation in the group that ( A ). For example, if you look at salaries for everyone in a certain company, including everyone from student interns to the chief executive officer (CEO), the standard deviation may be very large. ( B ), if ( C ) narrow the group down by looking only at the student interns, the standard deviation is smaller, because the (b) individuals within this group have salaries that are less variable. The second data set isn't better, it's just less variable.
[Adapted from Rumsey, Deborah J. (2016) Statistics for Dummies,
2.d Ed. John Wiley: New Jersey.]

1. Which of the blanks I - II should be filled with the word 'a'?

a. I
b. I and II
c. II
d. II and III

2. Which of the following best replaces (a) they?

a. the trash
b. the parts
c. the cars
d. the cases

3. Which of the following best fits in blank A?

a. studied
b. was studied
c. would be studied
d. is being studied

4. Which of the following best fits in blank B?

a. For example
c. On the other hand
d. Because

5. Which of the following best fits in blank C?
a. you
b. they
c. I
d. people

6. Which of the following is used to mean the same as the (b) individuals?

a. they
b. the CEOs
c. everyone
d. the student interns

Section B: The five paragraphs [A] – [E] given below make up a passage, excerpted from a larger text, but are not properly ordered. Moreover, the four sentences (1)-(4) in paragraph [A] are not properly ordered, either. Read the passage and choose the best option from a - d for questions 7 and 8.
The meaning of the phrase marked with an asterisk (*) is given below the passage.

[A]
(1) In his active learning and remembering, the subject is applying a schema since the schema contains what he already knows of the world.

(2) Bartlett regarded the processes of learning and remembering as essentially active, with the subject showing a constant effort after meaning.

(3) However, when material is presented that is not readily incorporated into a schema, distortions will occur.

(4) Bartlett explored these by presenting his subjects with unfamiliar but structured material, for example a North American Indian folk tale.

[B]
Bartlett generalized this notion far beyond Head's original concept. To Bartlett, a schema referred to an organized structure that captures our knowledge and expectations of some aspect of the world. It is, in other words, a model of some part of our environment and experience.

[C] During the 1970s, it became increasingly obvious that semantic memory must contain structures that were considerably larger than the simple concepts involved in the semantic systems implied by Collins and Loftus and Smith et al. This was not of course a new conclusion. In his classical book Remembering, published in 1932, Sir Frederic Bartlett proposed an interpretation of memory that assumed that subjects remember new material in terms of existing structures which he termed schemas or schemata.

[D] The concept of schema was borrowed from a neurologist, Henry Head, who used it to represent a person's concept of the location of the limbs and the body. He described it as analogous to having a diagram inside one's head, keeping track of the position of one's limbs; interpreted more broadly, a person's schema could extend beyond the body to the limits of a car being driven, or as Head points out, to the feather on one's hat.

[E] When subjects recalled the story, they typically distorted it by omitting features that did not fit in with their prior expectations or schemas, and by distorting other features. Hence, an incident where something black came out of the mouth of one of the Indians was often remembered in terms more consistent with the culture of Bartlett's Cambridge subjects, such as the man *frothing at the mouth, or his soul leaving his body through his mouth.

* frothing at the mouth =saliva foaming at the mouth; being very angry

7. Which of the following shows the best (most coherent) sentence order for paragraph [A]?

a. 4 - 1 - 3 - 2
b. 3 - 2 - 1 - 4
c. 2 - 1 - 3 - 4
d. 1 - 3 - 2 - 4

8. Which of the following shows the best (most coherent) paragraph order for the passage?

a. A - E - C - D - B
b. C - D - B - A - E
c. D - B - C - A - E
d. E - C - B - D - A

１　a
２　b
３　d
４　c
５　a
６　d
７　c
８　b

## 早稲田理工学部 2018問題3 解説

【問題について】
１　初めに登場する統計集合だけに不定冠詞の a がつきます。後の集合はすでに文中で言及したものです。
２　parts don't fit right とすると意味が正確になります。
３　reflects という動詞は現在形であることに注目する。
４　逆接になっているので On the other hand が正解です。
５　you が正解です。ここでの you は「あなた」という二人称ではなく、一般法則を意味します。
６　the student interns within this group have salaries that are less variable とすると意味が正確になります。
７　１ではすでに active learning が登場しているので１は２の後ろに置かれます。３は however があるのでそれまでの話が逆転しインディアンの話へと続きます。
８　C では初めて schema が言及されます。 D では The concept of scheme とあるので C よりは後ろになります。 E は indians の話題があるので D よりも後に置かれます。

【standard deviation】

【active learning】
アクティブ・ラーニングは、学習者が能動的に学習することです。対義語は、受動的な学習です。

そこで、学習者に意欲・好奇心を喚起する指導技術を、専門家の間で、アクティブ・ラーニングと呼ぶようになりました。
アクティブ・ラーニングにはいくつかの水準があり、生徒の学習能力に合わせて、用います。生徒の学習能力として、以下が研究されています。

【重要表現】
standard deviation　標準偏差
mean value　平均値
quantity　量

## 早稲田理工学部 2018問題3 全訳

セクションA：以下の文章を読み、問1から6までについて、最もふさわしいものを a - d から選びなさい。

しかし、あなたがただデータを観察し記録する状況では、大きな標準偏差は必ずしも悪いことではない。それは、研究されている集団のばらつきが大きく反映されているだけだ。例えば、学生インターンから最高経営責任者（CEO）までのすべての人を含む特定の会社の全員の給与を見ると、標準偏差は非常に大きくなることがある。一方、学生の研修生だけを見て集団を絞りこむと、標準偏差は小さくなる。なぜなら、この集団の中の個人は給与の変動が少ないからだ。2番目のデータ集合は優れているわけではなく、ただ変動がより少ないだけだ。

セクションB：以下の5つの段落 [A]-[E] は、より大きな文章から抜粋した箇所ですが、順序が正しくありません。 さらに、段落[A]の4つの文（1）-（4）も正しい順序になっていません。文章を読み、質問7と8について、最もふさわしいものを a - d から選びなさい。

[A]
（1）彼のアクティブラーニングと記憶において、被験者はスキーマを適用している。なぜならスキーマは彼がすでに世界について知っていることを含むからだ。

（2）バートレットは学習と記憶の過程を本質的に能動的と見なし、被験者は意味の後に一定の努力を示した。

（3）しかし、スキーマに容易に組み込むことのできない素材が提示されると、歪みが生じる。

（4）バートレットは、未知であるが構造化された素材、例えば北アメリカのインディアンの民話を、彼の被験者に提示することによって、これらを探究した。

[B] バートレットは、ヘッドの元の概念をはるかに超えて、この概念を一般化した。バートレットにとって、スキーマとは、世界の何らかの側面に関する私たちの知識と期待を捕らえる組織化された構造を指していた。言いかえれば、私たちの環境と経験の一部の模型だ。

[C] 1970年代の間に、意味記憶には、コリンズとロフタスとスミスらが暗示する意味体系に含まれる単純な概念よりもかなり大きい構造を含んでいなければならないことがますます明らかになった。これはもちろん新しい結論ではなかった。フレデリック・バートレット教授は、1932年に出版された古典的な「Remembering」の本で、被験者はスキーマまたはスキーマと彼が名付けた既存の構造に関連して新しい素材を覚えていると仮定した記憶の解釈を提案した。

[D] スキーマの概念は、神経学者であるヘンリー・ヘッドから借用され、彼は、それを使って個人の手足と体の位置の概念を表現した。彼はそれを頭の中にダイアグラムを持ち、個人の四肢の位置を追跡しているという類似により説明した。より広く解釈されると、人のスキーマは、身体を超えて運転される自動車の限界まで、またはヘッドが指摘するように、帽子の羽根まで、広がる可能性がある。

[E] 被験者が物語を思い出したとき、以前の期待やスキーマに合わない特徴を省略し、他の特徴を歪ませて、彼らはそれを典型的に歪めた。したがって、インディアンの一人の口から何か黒いものが出てきたという出来事は、口が泡立つ男やあるいは口を通じて肉体から魂が出ていくというような、バートレットのケンブリッジの被験者の文化と、より整合して記憶されることがよくあった。

## 早稲田理工学部 2018問題4

Read the texts in Sections A and B and answer the questions.

Section A: For questions 1 - 5, choose the best option from a - d.

Binary logic consists of binary variables and logical operations. The variables are designated by letters of the alphabet such as A, B, C, x, y, z, etc., with each variable having two and only two distinct possible values: 1 and 0. There are three basic logical operations: AND, OR, and NOT.

AND: This operation is represented by a dot (.) or by the absence of an operator. For example, x.y=z or xy=z is read "X AND y is equal to z." The logical operation AND is interpreted to mean that z=1 if and only if x=1 and y= 1; otherwise z=0.

OR: This operation is represented by a plus sign (+). For example, x+y=z is read "X OR y is equal to z." meaning that z=1 if x=1 or if y=1 or if both x = 1 and y=1. If both x=0 and y=0, then z=0.

NOT: This operation is represented by a prime (') (sometimes by a bar). For example, x'=z (or ž = z) is read "x NOT is equal to z," meaning that z is what x is not. In other words, if x=1, then z=0; but if x=0, then z=1.

For each combination of the values of x and y, there is a value of z specified by the definition of the logical operation. These definitions may be listed in a compact form using truth tables.

A truth table is a table of all possible combinations of the variables showing the relation between the values that the variables may take and the result of the operation. For example, the truth tables for the operations AND and OR with variables x and y are obtained by listing all possible values that the variables may have when combined in pairs. The result of the operation for each combination will then be listed in a separate column. The truth tables below demonstrate the definitions of the operations, AND, OR, and NOT.

#### 早稲田理工学部 2018-4 truth table

Binary logic diagrams are often used in the design of electronic circuits, where 1 represents a flowing current, and 0 represents no current. The operations are represented by logic gates, as in the diagram below, which perform a logical operation on one or more binary inputs, and produce a single binary output.

#### 早稲田理工学部 2018-4 Binary Logic Diagram

[Adapted from Mano, M. Morris (1979) Digital Logic and Computer Design. Prentice Hall College Division.]

1. Which of the following is true about binary logic?

a. AND is equivalent to addition in arithmetic.
b. Logical operators have only one representation.
c. Variables can take on any positive value.
d. If z is a variable, then z=0 or z=1.

2. In the truth tables above, what are the values of the xy column when filled from the top to the bottom?

a. 0, 0, 0, 0
b. 0, 0, 0, 1
c. 0, 0, 1, 1
d. 0, 1, 1, 1

3. In the truth tables above, what are the values of the x+y column when filled from the top to the bottom?

a. 0, 0, 0, 0
b. 0, 0, 0, 1
c. 0, 0, 1, 1
d. 0, 1, 1, 1

4. What is the value resulting from the operations: (1・0)'+0?

a. 0
b. 1
c. 2
d. 10

5. When the output X of the electronic circuit is 0 in the binary logic diagram above, which of the following is a possible sequence of values for A, B, and C?

a. 0, 0, 0
b. 0, 1, 0
c. 0, 1, 1
d. 1, 1, 1

SectionB: For questions 6 -10, choose the best option from a - d.

Buying a property requires careful planning. Usually 10 percent of the property price should be paid first. The banks will loan the remaining 90 percent, which is called the principal. The expenses of purchasing and then living on the property are: the interest paid on the loan, purchasing expenses of 10 percent of the property price, and the property management fee. The money used to pay off the principal is not considered as an expense. We can calculate the total interest we will pay over t years, using the equations below.

(1) The total interest paid over t years = (The total payment made over t years) – (The principal paid off)

(2) The principal paid off = $P-(Pr^t-A \frac{\large r^t-1}{\large r-1})$, where P is the principal, A is the yearly amount used to pay off the loan, r is the interest rate +1 (e.g., if the interest rate is 2, then r=0.02+1=1.02), and t is the number of years spent paying off the loan.

Calculating the cost of renting is much simpler. It merely involves summing the monthly expenditures (rent and management fee), any additional expenses such as key money, and a contract fee.

Now, let us consider the following property: A $20m^2$ apartment, $20min$ from Waseda. The table below compares the approximate expenses of buying and renting the apartment in the first year (Year 1) and for the first four years (Years 1-4).

Price:15,000,000 yen.
Term of loan: 30 years.
Monthly management fee: 16,660 yen.
Loan interest rate (calculated annually, fixed over 30 years):2％.
Assume that the yearly amount to pay off the loan is 600,000 yen.

Renting
Monthly rent: 60,000 yen.
Monthly management fee: 5,000 yen.
Key money (one-timeonly): 65,000 yen.
Contract fee (renewed every two years): 65,000 yen.

#### 早稲田理工学部 2018-4 Buying vs Renting

6. In the formula (2), what is P?

a. money borrowed from the bank
b. interest paid
c. deposit paid
d. property management fees

7. What is the approximate cost of renting in the first year?

a. 720,000
b. 800,000
c. 900,000
d. 1,500,000

8. What is the approximate cost of buying in the first year?

a. 1,500,000
b. 2,000,000
c. 2,500,000
d. 3,000,000

9. If a student bought the apartment upon entering Waseda University, approximately how much more would it cost in the four years until graduation than renting it?

a. 25,000
b. 250,000
c. 1,500,000
d. 3,000,000

10. Which of the following is true according to the text?

a. Buying is cheaper after one year, but the costs after six years are the same.
b. Renting is cheaper after one year, but the costs after six years are the same.
c. Buying is cheaper after one year, but renting is cheaper after six years.
d. Renting is cheaper after one year, but buying is cheaper after six years.

１　d
２　b
３　d
４　b
５　c
６　a
７　c
８　b
９　a
１０　d

## 早稲田理工学部 2018問題4 解説

【問題について】
１　変数は２値理論では０か１のどちらかになりますので d が正解です。
２　And回路は入力が両方とも１の場合に出力が１になりますので b が正解です。
３　Or回路は入力のどちらかが１の場合に出力が１になりますのでが d が正解です。
４　(1・0)'+0 = 1+0 = 1 となりますので b が正解です。
５　AND回路が０になるのはA＝０かつB＝１の時、Not回路が になるのはC＝１の時なので c が正解です。
６　money borrowed from the bank は文章の principal のことです。
７　Year1 では Rent + Management fee + Key money + Contract fee = 910,000 なので c が正解です。が正解です。
８　Year1 では Interest + Purchasing expenses + Management = 1,970,000 なので b が正解です。
９　Year4 では Rent + Management fee + Key money + Contract fee = 3,315,000 である一方で Interest + Purchasing expenses + Management = 3,340,400　となります。　したがって a が正解です。
１０　 year4 ではほとんど費用が均衡していますので year6 では購入した方が全体の費用は安くなります。

【重要表現】
Binary logic　２値論理
variables　変数
logical operations　論理演算
property　資産
pay off　支払い

## 早稲田理工学部 2018問題4 全訳

セクションAとセクションBの文章を読み、質問に答えなさい。

セクションA：質問1〜5について、a - d から最もふさわしいもの選びなさい。

AND、OR、およびNOTという３つの基本的な論理演算がある。

AND：この演算はドット(.)または演算子がないことで表される。例えば x・y = z または xy = z は「x AND yは z に等しい」と読まれる。論理演算ANDは x = 1 かつ y = 1 の場合にのみ z =1 を意味すると解釈され、そうでなければ z = 0 となる。

OR：この演算はプラス記号（+）で表される。例えば x + y = zは「X OR yは z に等しい」と読まれる。 x =1 の場合、または y = 1 の場合、または x = 1 および y = 1 の両方の場合、 z = 1 を意味する。 x = 0 および y =0 の両方の場合、z = 0。

NOT：この操作は、プライム（ '）（時にはバー）で表される。例えば x' = z（または ž = z) は「x NOT は z と等しい」と読まれる。つまり z は x ではない。言いかえれば、x = 1 ならば z = 0 となる。x = 0 の場合、 z = 1 となる。

xとyの値の組み合わせごとに、論理演算の定義で指定されたzの値がある。これらの定義は、真理値表を使用し軽量な形式で一覧にされることがある。

#### 早稲田理工学部 2018-4 Binary Logic Diagram

セクションB：質問6〜10について、a - d から最もふさわしいもの選びなさい。

（1）t年にわたり支払われた総利子=（t年間にわたり支払われた総支払額）-（返済された元本）

（2）返済された元本は $P-(Pr^t-A \frac{\large r^t-1}{\large r-1})$
ここで、Pは元本、Aは１年間の支払い、rは金利+1（例えば、金利が2の場合、r = 0.02 + 1 =1.02）であり、tは融資の返済に費やされた年数だ。

さて、次の物件を考えてみよう：A $20m ^ 2$ アパート 早稲田から$20分$。

ローン金利（毎年計算、30年固定）：2％
ローン支払いの年額は60万円とする。

6　公式（２）において、Ｐは何ですか？

a 銀行から借りたお金
b 支払利息
c 預金支払
d 不動産管理手数料

7.初年度のおおよその家賃はいくらですか。

a 720,000
b 800,000
c 900,000
d 1,500,000

8.初年度のおおよその購入費用はいくらですか。

a 150万
b 200万
c 250万
d 300万

9.学生が早稲田大学に入学してアパートを購入した場合、卒業までの4年間の賃貸料よりもおおよそどれくらいの費用がかかりますか。

a 25,000
b 25万
c 150万
d 300万

10.本文によると、次のうちどれが正しいですか？

a 購入は1年後には安いが、6年後の費用は同じだ。
b 賃貸は1年後には安いが、6年後の費用は同じだ。
c 購入は1年後には安いが、賃貸は6年後には安くなる。
d 賃貸は1年後には安いが、購入は6年後には安くなる。

## 早稲田理工学部 2018問題5

Answer the questions in Sections A-C.

Section A: For questions 1 – 5, two definitions are given with one sample each. Think of a word that matches both definitions and also fits the blanks in both sentences. Convert each letter of the word into a number 1 to 4 according to the table below:

number 1 represents letters a-g, 2 represents h-m, 3 represents n-s, and 4 represents t-z.
Then choose the matching sequence of numbers from a - d. For example, if the word you think of is wise, for which the first letter w is given, the remaining letters would be changed into 2.for i, 3 for s, and 1 for e. Hence, the correct answer would be w231.

Number　　　　Letters
1　　　　a, b, c, d, e, f, g
2　　　　h, i, j, k, l, m
3　　　　n, o, p, q, r, s
4　　　　t, u, v, w, x, y, z

1.
(i) the facts or objects that make you believe something is true: There is convincing (e　　　) of alink between smoking and lung cancer.
(ii) the information that is used in court to try to prove something: The suspect was released when the judge ruled there was no (e　　　) against him.

a. (e111)
b. (e4431)
c. (e212134)
d. (e4211311)

2.
(i) an important social or religious event, when a traditional set of actions is performed in a formal way: It has been a huge issue in Japanese schools whether or not to sing the national anthem in a graduation (c　　　).
(ii) the special actions and formal words traditionally used on particular occasions: The queen was crowned with due (c　　　).

a. (c1312334)
b. (c21311)
c. (c3112)
d. (c3231424233)

3.
(i) a long talk on a particular subject that a professor gives to a group of students in a university:
This professor regularly gives (l　　　) s on modern physics.
(ii) an act of criticizing or warning someone about something in a long serious talk: My teacher caught me and gave me a long (l　　　) about the dangers of smoking.

a. (l2124)
b. (l12224)
c. (l232)
d. (l114431)

4.
(i) to translate spoken words from one language to another: Mary spoke good Japanese and promised to (i　　　) for me.
(ii) to believe that something someone does has a particular meaning: John's refusal to work late was (i　　　) ed as a lack of commitment to the company.

a. (i34131)
b. (i34133314)
c. (1312411)
d. (i233133)

5.
(i) to get something through your own effort: In the second experiment they (o　　　) ed a very
clear result.
(ii) to get something from somebody: Further information about the new product can be (o　　　) ed from the manufacturer.

a. (014123)
b. (0131341)
c. (031113)
d. (0313141)

Section B: For questions 6-10, one or more descriptions of an expression are given with two examples, each containing two blanks. The expressions are often used in everyday situations. Think of words that best fit in the two blanks in the examples, convert the words into a sequence of numbers according to the table in Section A, and choose the matching pair of sequences of numbers from a - d.

6. You use this expression when you need to speak to someone briefly in private as in Example 1 and Example 2.

Example 1
A: Could I (h　　 ) a (　　 ) with you?
B: Sure. I'll be with you in a minute.

Example 2.
A: I'd like to (h　　 ) a (　　 ) with you.

a. (h113) (31324)
b. (h141) (4331)
c. (h321) (131142)
d. (h331) (42231)

7. You use this expression when you tell your conversation partner to drop the subject as in Example 1. This expression can also be used to mean "You're welcome' as in Example 2.

Example 1
A: What did you say?
B: Oh, nothing. Just (f　　 )(　　 ) !

Example 2.
A: Thank you very much for helping me out.
B: Oh, (f　 　)(　　 )!

a. (f33) (143)
b. (f24) (1414)
c. (f33114) (24)
d. (f32234) (21)

8. You use this expression when you make a request in a polite way as in Example 1. You can also use it to politely agree that someone should do something as in Example 2.

Example 1
A: (I　　) you don't (　　), could you move a little to the right?
B: No problem.

Example 2.
A: Do you want me to take these books away?
B: (I　　) you don't (　　).

a. (I1) (2231)
b. (I4) (314)
c. (I111224) (1131)
d. (I313321224) (1122141)

9. You use this expression when you announce your need to depart as in Example 1 and Example 2.

Example 1
A: I'd (b　　) be (　　) ing. I've got to get home.
B: Well, if you must, you must. Bye.

Example 2
A: It's starting to rain. I'd (b　　) be (　　) ing.
B: Okay. Be careful. Have you got everything?

a. (b1124) (3433)
b. (b134) (3414)
c. (b14413) (13)
d. (b321124) (2114)

10. You use this expression when you ask your conversation partner for another chance as in Example 1. You can also use it to tell your conversation partner to drop the subject as in Example 2.

Example 1
A: Do you really think you can do it?
B: I'm positive. (G　　 ) me a (　　 )!

Example 2
A: Now I'm going to sing my school song.
B: (G　　 ) me a (　　 )! Sing something everyone knows.

a. (G241) (4221)
b. (G241) (13112)
c. (G14) (121311)
d. (G14) (4232)

Section C: For questions 11 - 15, think of a word that best fits in each blank in the following conversation about homework between a student and a lab assistant. Convert each word into a sequence of numbers according to the table in Section A and choose the matching sequence of numbers from a - d.

Student: Excuse me, are you busy right now?
Lab Assistant: No not at all, please come in, ( 11 ) down.
Student: I'm a student in your physics lab. I'd like to ask you a few ( 12 ) about the lab report we have to write by next week.
Lab Assistant: Sure, what is it you'd like to ( 13 )? Student: Well, you said that we must write an introduction, the results, the discussion, and a conclusion, being sure to include a detailed description of the results.
Lab Assistant: That's ( 14 ).
Student: But if I include ( 15 ), it'll be more than 20 pages.
Lab Assistant: That sounds about right.

11.
a. 1321
b. 221
c. 324
d. 4131

12.
a. 1243
b. 21113
c. 313321
d. 422313

13.
a. 1112
b. 2334
c. 311
d. 4122

14.
a. 1134
b. 24
c. 32124
d. 4212

15.
a. 1413442231
b. 2221
c. 3134141343
d. 43213333

１　d
２　a
３　d
４　b
５　a
６　b
７　a
８　a
９　c
１０　b
１１　c
１２　d
１３　b
１４　c
１５　a

## 早稲田理工学部 2018問題5 解説

【問題について】
１　evidence
２　ceremony
３　lecture
４　interpret
５　obtain
６　(have) a (time)
７　(for)(fun)
８　(If) you don't (mind)
９　(better) be (go) ing
１０　(Give) me a (chance)
１１　sit
１２　things
１３　know
１４　right
１５　everything