慶応義塾大学 医学部 傾向と対策の解説 2018

慶応義塾大学 医学部 傾向と対策の解説 2018

慶応義塾大学 医学部 傾向と対策の解説 2018

慶応義塾大学 医学部 傾向と対策の解説 2018



【大学】 慶應大学
【学部】 医学部
【年度】 2018年

【大問】 1
【形式】 適語補充 英文和訳 和文英訳(英作文)
【表題】 他人と一緒の時間を過ごしていますか Do you spend enough time with other people?
【作者】 シャノン・ドイネ Shannon Doyne
【対策】 文章の流れに合わせて、適語補充をし、合わせて英作文(和文英訳)と英文和訳が出題される。文書の内容は、他人と過ごすことが健康にどのような影響を与えるかを述べている。近年では健康の定義が身体的・精神的・社会的な範囲へと広がっていることに注意したい。
【用語】 健康 コミュニケーション

【大問】 2
【形式】 誤文指摘 英文和訳 和文英訳(英作文)
【表題】 日本の笑い 思ったよりわかりやすい Japanese humor more universally funny than you think
【作者】 ダニエル・モレル Daniel Morales
【対策】 文章の流れに合わせて、誤文指摘をし、合わせて英作文(和文英訳)と英文和訳が出題される。文書の内容は、医学とはあまり関係がなく、文化分野からの出題で、ユーモアのセンスは日英でどのような差があるか論じている。文化分野は必ず1題は出題されると考えておきたい。
【用語】 文化 ユーモア 笑い

【大問】 3
【形式】 適語補充 英文和訳 文章読解
【表題】 紙は森林には悪いが人間には良い Paper may be bad for trees but it is good for people
【作者】 タル・グロス Tal Gross
【対策】 設問文そのものが英語で書かれているので、どのような解答が求められているのか、読み慣れておきたい。文章の流れに合わせて、適語補充をするが、前置詞が1つのテーマとなっているので、対策はしやすかっただろう。前置詞は、慶応医学部の英文法対策では欠かせない。文章の内容は、紙と電子画面で、どのように学習効果が変わるかを述べている。一般に、紙は学習効果が高く、電子画面は利便性に優れることが主張されている。
【用語】 環境問題 紙 ICT 学習


慶応 医学部 2018 問題1

Study after study shows that good social relationships are the strongest, most consistent predictor there is of a happy life, indicating that they are a necessary condition for happiness. (1)This finding cuts across race, age, gender, income, and social class so overwhelmingly that all other predictors of happiness look tiny by comparison.

Yet, while most Americans claim that achieving personal happiness is a priority for them, (2)概して他人と実際に関わる時間をますます減らしつつある。 Nearly half of all meals eaten in the US are now eaten alone. (3)Teenagers and young adults these days give less priority to just "hanging out” with their friends than any generation in recent history, replacing real-world interaction with smartphones.

And this kind of observation ( ア ) not just to young people. A recent survey by the Bureau of Labor Statistics ( イ ) that the average American now ( ウ ) under four minutes a day to "hosting and attending social events," a category that ( エ ) all types of parties and other organized social occasions. That's 24 hours a year, which is barely enough time to ( オ ) to a couple of birthday parties and a Thanksgiving dinner.

According to research, we should really be aiming to spend less time alone if we want to be happy. Although most of us claim to value the time we have to ourselves, we consistently indicate in surveys that we are happier when we are around other people than when we are on our own. (4)Surprisingly, this finding is not just true of people who consider themselves outgoing, but also of those who are more inward looking.

問1 下線部(1)を This findings の内容を明らかにして、日本語に訳しなさい。

問2 下線部(2)を英語に訳しなさい。

問3 下線部(3)を日本語に訳しなさい。

問4 (ア)~(オ)の空欄に入れるのにふさわしい動詞を選択肢から選び、正しい形に変えたものを書きなさい。1つの動詞を複数回使ってはならない。


問5 下線部(4)を This findings の内容を明らかにして、日本語に訳しなさい。

問6 Do you think you spend enough time with other people? And how do you feel about the quality of that time? Would you prefer to spend more or less time socializing? Why?/Why not? Write 100 words or so in English to express your views on these questions.

慶応 医学部 2018 問題1 解答


問1 人間同士の良好な社会関係が幸福の土台であるという知見は、人種、年齢、性別、所得、社会階級を超えて、あまりにも圧倒的なので、他の幸福の指標は、比較すると、軽微なものに見える。

問2 People spent less and less time to meet others face to face in general


問3 今日の十代の人間や若者は、これまでのどの世代よりも、ただ友達と「外出すること」の優先順位をより低くし、現実世界の交流をスマートフォンに置き換えている。

(ア) applied
(イ) reports
(ウ) devote
(エ) covers
(オ) go


問5 驚くべきことに、 自分一人でいるよりも他人と一緒にいる方が幸福になることは、自分のことを活動的と考える人だけに当てはまるのではなく、しかしまた、より内向的と考える人にも当てはまる。

I think I spend enough time with my family. We eat dinner together every day at our dining room. I tell them what happens in my school and what my friends do. The quality of that time is good. I feel comfortable staying with them and my parents always give me useful advices. I prefer to spend more time socializing because I know I like talking with other people face to face and I do not like staying in my room alone. I should go outside. Meeting people in real life is different from chatting through smartphones virtually. (98 words)

(解説 英作文対策講座へ)

慶応 医学部 2018 問題2


[    問1    ]

In most cultures, (1) catching people not paying any money can be funny. If, ( あ ), a group of friends are having a conversation, and Stan, a friendly American guy with a tendency to daydream, ends up staring off into the distance, (ア) 他のメンバーは彼がようやく我に返った時に彼を笑うことができる.

In English, we sometimes use NASA*-style language to try to “contact” people ( い ) they “space out*”: “Earth to Stan. This is Earth. Do you copy?* Come in* Stan.”

This kind of situation is funny ( う ) it's Hiroshi, Stan's absent-minded Japanese counterpart, who has lost concentration.

But ( え ) try to “contact” Hiroshi, his Japanese friends might attempt to “call” him, using the phone greeting Moshi moshi (“Hello?").

When they do so, the second mo is almost always extended for dramatic effect, and the final shi sounds more like “shh”: moshi mooooosh. This equates nicely with a drawn-out “Hellooooo?" in English, and it can be supplemented with Okite imasuka? ( A ) to add insult to injury.

( お ) you are, including Japan, it's never fun to admit to doing something embarrassing. On the other hand, (2) it's not fun to accept it, either, because by doing so you are simply lying. It's much more comfortable, and also funnier, to do neither.

For example, if Stan is asked ( か ) it's true that he turned up to his brother's wedding wearing one black shoe and one brown shoe, he might well answer, “No comment.” Again, this is an example of universal humor: when Stan says, “No comment,” (3) everyone knows that the story is in fact false, but by just implying that he did something stupid without admitting it directly, he makes everyone laugh.

So expressions like “No comment,” or ( き ) the equivalent happens to be in your language, are common. In the United States, like Stan, we often use the simple “No comment” or, for more drama, “I have no comment at this time.” ( く ) of this, Hiroshi might use keigo (respectful language), saying something like Komento wa hikaesasete itadakimasu (“I will refrain from commenting”). This is amusing not only because he is basically confirming he did something embarrassing, (4) but also because it is excessively rude and sounds too formal.

Death is also funny. Well, not death itself, but using the threat of death to exaggerate the effects an action might have on you (e.g., “My wife will kill me if I forget our anniversary again"). The Japanese also make light of death ( け ), with phrases like Natto wo tabetara, inochi ni kakawarimasu ( B ). Surely this is a more interesting and amusing way (5) to express your appreciation of these smelly beans than just saying, Natto kirai desu (“I hate natto").

Excessive modesty and mock boasting are also good ways to get laughs. In English, men who are complimented on their looks often say, “That's what all the ladies say.” This may seem boastful, but it can also be taken ironically to suggest that (イ) the opposite is true. The Japanese version of this phrase is Yoku iwaremasu ( C ). You can use this if you're complimented: Nihongo jõzu desu ne ( D ). Yoku iwaremasu! And (6) you can also use it if you're flattered: Kyo taishū hidoi yo ( E ). Yoku iwaremasu!

So don't give up on Japanese humor just yet. Watch more TV shows and see ( こ ) you can learn from them. Clearly there are many things we can all laugh at together.

問1 文章の冒頭には、以下の文章が欠けているので、導入部としてふさわしい文章を英語40語から50語程度で書きなさい。


問2 下線部(1)~(6)で内容に合わない語をそれぞれ1つ探し、代わりとなるふさわしい語を書きなさい。

問3 (あ)~(こ)に入る最も適当な語(句)を下からそれぞれ1つ選んで、その 記号を書きなさい。選択肢の語(句)はすべて小文字で与えられているが、文頭に置く場合は大文字で始めるものと考えて選びなさい。一つの語(句)を複数回 使ってはならない。

1 even
2 even if
3 for example
4 however
5 instead
6 instead of
7 in the same way
8 rather
9 rather than
10 what
11 whatever
12 when
13 whenever
14 wherever
15 whether

問4 下線部(ア)を英語に訳しなさい。

問5 文章中のローマ字表記の文(A)~(E)は、漢字仮名交り文にすると以下の通りである。それぞれ英語に訳しなさい。


問6 下線部(イ)の the opposite is true が具体的にどのようなことを指しているのか日本語30字以内で説明しなさい。

慶応 医学部 2018 問題2 解答


Japanese sense of humor is different from Western sense of humor in many aspects. However, this article was published in an English newspaper from Japan, and it encourages foreigners living in Japan to understand Japanese sense of humor with a focus on their similarities more than differences.

(解説 英作文対策講座へ)

(1) money / attention
(2) accept / deny
(3) false / true
(4) rude / polite
(5) appreciation / dislike
(6) flattered / insulted

(あ) 3
(い) 12
(う) 2
(え) 9
(お) 14
(か) 15
(き) 11
(く) 5
(け) 7
(こ) 10

問4 Other members are able to laugh at him when he finally comes to his senses.

(A) Are you awake
(B) If I eat natto, it will take my life
(C) I always hear that
(D) You are good at speaking Japanese
(E) You smell terrible today


慶応 医学部 2018 問題2 全訳


英語では、私たちはNASA*流の言い回しを用いて、時には「大気圏外」の人々に 「接触」しようとする。「地球からスタンへ。応答せよ」。このような状況は、スタンではなくヒロシであっても面白い。ヒロシは集中力を失って、ぼうっとしているスタンの日本版だ。しかし、ヒロシに連絡しようとするなら、彼の日本人の友人は「電話」するだろう。電話越しに、ヒロシに「もしもし」と挨拶する。それをするとき、2番目の「も」はほぼ常に劇的な効果のために間延びして、最終的な「し」はもっと「しゅ」のように聞こえる。「もしもーしゅ」。これは英語なら「Hellooooo?」とよく一致して、「起きていますか」と付け加えると、小馬鹿にした印象になる。





慶応 医学部 2018 問題3

Read the passage below and answer the questions that follow it.

When I was checking out at the supermarket the other day, a stranger told me I shouldn't buy white paper towels. He said I should buy brown ones instead, because they are not as bad ( a ) the environment as white ones.

I am perhaps unusual ( b ) university teachers these days: instead of using PowerPoint* in the classroom, I give my students paper handouts and ask them to take notes by hand. I suppose I should feel guilty ( c ) all the paper I waste. But I don't. Actually, I think my colleagues and I should be using more paper. Working on paper helps people think. It makes us more productive, receptive, and attentive. (1) While giving up white paper towels wouldn't be such a sacrifice, giving up office paper would be a major loss.

Take, for instance, an experiment performed by a team of researchers in Norway. They randomly assigned 72 students to read a passage either on paper or on a computer screen. Those who read it on paper scored much better ( d ) a comprehension test. The researchers could only speculate ( e ) why the students who had read the passage on paper remembered more about it, but they suspected that there was just something helpful about seeing the text physically laid out on the page. Readers sometimes remember where on the page they came ( f ) a particular passage. But (2) that spatial aspect of reading — the physicality of it — is lost on a digital device.

This experiment is not alone ( g ) suggesting that using paper is beneficial. Another widely cited study found that students who took notes on paper learned more from lectures than those who took notes ( h ) a laptop. And there's even research that suggests the doodling* students do ( i ) each page's margins might help them concentrate. A researcher in England had one group of students doodle while listening to a recording, and another group simply sit still. The students who had doodled performed better when they were given a surprise memory test about the recording.

Such studies all suggest that there are benefits ( j ) using paper: we learn more when reading and writing on paper than when reading and writing on a digital device. Perhaps it is better for the environment if students look at PowerPoint slides on their laptops while in class, but it certainly does not make ( k ) better learning.

(3) Some people — I think of the paper-towel guy in the supermarket – want us to believe that paper is like toxic waste. They argue that the planet would be better off if we could eliminate it. And perhaps a world in which reading happened only on e-book readers and digital screens would be better for the planet's trees. But it would not be better for us.
That's not to say that all this paper doesn't take an environmental toll*, a toll we should take seriously. I'm all ( l ) using less paper when it comes ( m ) receipts, bills, and taxes. All such things ought to shift to the digital world. But we should be careful not to cut ( n ) paper where it most helps us — when we're learning, when we need to read carefully, when we need to concentrate. Yes, paper has a cost, and we should take the consequences of our actions seriously. But our decisions should be based not only on costs but also on benefits. And an old-fashioned world with pen and paper brings along enormous benefits.


問1 Select the best option to fill each of the blank spaces marked a – n in the passage. On the answer sheet, enter the number (1-4) that corresponds to each option you select.

a 1 as 2 for 3 in 4 than
b 1 among 2 as 3 for 4 with
c 1 about 2 of 3 to 4 toward
d 1 by 2 on 3 than 4 to
e 1 as for 2 as in 3 as on 4 as to
f 1 across 2 by 3 from 4 in
g 1 at 2 for 3 in 4 to
h 1 by 2 for 3 in 4 with
i 1 by 2 for 3 in 4 with
j 1 for 2 on 3 to 4 toward
k 1 for 2 into 3 of 4 up
1 1 against 2 by 3 for 4 to
m 1 back 2 out 3 to 4 up
n 1 back in 2 back on 3 down to 4 down with

問2 Translate the underlined sentence marked (1) into Japanese.

問3 Explain in Japanese what the writer means by the underlined words marked (2), giving a specific example. Use no more than 40 characters.

問4 Refer to the underlined sentence marked (3), and explain in Japanese in what way “paper is like toxic waste,” according to those who insist that it is. Use no more than 30 Japanese characters.

問5 According to the passage, are the following statements true or false? On the answer sheet, indicate those you consider to be true with an A, and those you think are false with a B. If you think it is impossible to tell from the passage whether a particular statement is true or false, indicate this with a C.

(1) The writer was surprised to be told by a stranger not to buy white
paper towels.

(2) The writer thinks teachers should use less paper for educational

(3) One of the advantages of reading text on paper is that you can retain
more of the information in the text than if you read it on a computer

(4) Using a PC to take lecture notes is more effective for learning
purposes than taking notes by hand.

(5) If you see someone doodling in class, you can assume that that person
is not concentrating properly.

(6) The writer accepts that conveying information digitally is more
environmentally friendly than using paper for this purpose.

(7) The writer thinks that more and more educators will eventually come to realize that using paper is more effective in teaching their students than using digital technology.

慶応 医学部 2018 問題3 解答


( a ) 2
( b ) 3
( C ) 2
( d ) 2
( e ) 1
( f ) 1
( g ) 3
( h ) 4
( i ) 2
( j ) 1
( k ) 4
( 1 ) 3
( m ) 3
( n ) 2

問2 白い紙タオルをあきらめても、それほど犠牲にはならないが、一方で、事務用紙をあきらめることは、大きな損失になるだろう

問3 デジタル機器でウェブサイトを閲覧すると、画面の変化により文字の配列が変わること

問4 白い紙を生産消費すると地球環境に害があると信じているから

(1) A
(2) B 
(3) C
(4) B
(5) B
(6) A
(7) A


check out 会計する
handouts 配布物
comprehension test 読解力試験
page margin ページの余白
cut back on 削減する
old‐fashioned 昔ながらの
benefit 利益
profit 金銭の利益

慶応 医学部 2018 問題3 全訳