Read the following article and answer the questions as indicated.
Long-established government organizations fund the arts in many nations, for example, the Arts Council England and the National Endowment for the Arts (NEA) in the US. Both support not only a variety of arts including painting, sculpture, music, dance, and folk arts, but also cultural institutions such as libraries, theaters, and museums. In addition, these organizations fund an array of programs to encourage people to enjoy the arts and cultural events. This support is critical, especially during economic recessions. [ １０ ] withdrawing state money, we need to protect and even increase government funding for the arts.
To begin with, art and culture enrich public life. As Sandy Nairne, a former director of the National Portrait Gallery in London said, "Culture and art are a necessity for people both as individuals and as part of communities. Whether enjoying a visit to a museum or art gallery, singing in a choir, listening to extraordinary musicians, reading poetry, or sharing in the excitement of street performance, this is a part of what makes life worthwhile." Furthermore, in an age of migration and social change, the arts serve an important role in bringing people together, helping to give citizens common experiences, and finding ways to accommodate their differences. [ １１ ]
Art and culture represent the heritage in which a people's history and identity are firmly rooted. This heritage is preserved in the various cultural institutions of a nation. According to novelist Michael Rosen, "The wonder of libraries, museums, and archives is that we can relate ourselves with others - often stretching back hundreds or thousands of years. This is one of the ways in which we can discover the history and shape of humanity and where or how we fit into it." [ １２ ]. It is, therefore, our duty to preserve, support, and encourage them.
Nevertheless, some fields of art cannot sustain themselves independently and require constant governmental funding to continue. In contrast to [ １３ ] successful grand theaters in big cities such as London and New York, local theaters in smaller cities and towns usually lack stability because ticket sales are necessarily limited. Also, since museums and libraries are non-profit cultural organizations, it is difficult for them to maintain their facilities and offer a high quality of services without support from government grants. Moreover, such funding is required for artistic innovation because it enables artists to take risks and experiment for the sake of art itself.
Some may argue that, wherever possible, private donations can and should replace government grants. Whereas in the US, private support for art and culture is relatively secure, donations to the arts cannot be taken for granted in many other countries. Today, when extremely wealthy individuals and corporations are dominating the global economy, more can clearly be asked of them. However, charitable giving by the private sector will only go so far. It would be unwise to make our arts overly
[ １４ ] dependent on the political or economic demands of private enterprise. During times of economic difficulty, private funding would constantly be at risk.
By contrast, stable government funding enables as many people as possible to enjoy art and culture. A government grant ensures everyone's affordable access to art and culture, and thus makes them an integral part of daily life. It allows [ １５ ]. Moreover, gallery tours and cultural programs bring the arts to the poor and to children, not only to well-to-do adults. Through these programs, people can gain an understanding of the importance of art and the need to protect cultural heritage for future generations.
Government funding of the arts and cultural activities brings economic benefits by attracting tourists. This, in turn, can promote the redevelopment of suburbs and encourage tourism-related services to grow. In the １９８０s, politicians in the UK recognized art and culture as valuable resources that could play a part in the renewal of post-industrial cities in the country. At that time, a British politician Chris Smith took up the idea of the arts as one of the "creative industries." Subsequently, an art policy was developed to widen public access to art and culture and to help drive urban rebirth and fight social exclusion. This change has been important. [ １６ ], the Arts Council of England estimates that the nation benefits by over ４ dollars for every １ dollar of investment in art funding.
The arts are vital for a better quality of life; the Arts Council England makes this point clearly on their website, declaring that "great art and culture inspires us, brings us together and teaches us about ourselves and the world around us." [ １７ ] individuals might contribute, providing art for citizens is always the responsibility of government. That is why continued state support of the arts is critical and must be ensured.
Title：The Arts: Why State Funding is Critical
Which of the following would best fill the gap at [ １０ ] in Paragraph１? Answer by filling in the corresponding slot under the number (１０) on the mark sheet.
１ Above all,
２ Except for
３ Far from
４ In addition to
Which of the following types of art is NOT discussed in Paragraph２? Fill in the blank at the number (１１) on the mark sheet.
Which of the following would best fill the gap at [ １２ ] in Paragraph３? Answer by filling in the corresponding slot under the number (１２) on the mark sheet.
１ Clearly, many writers are busy creating content for our heritage
２ Indeed, museums are at the very heart of this heritage-related industry
３ Obviously, heritage is firmly connected to a sense of national pride
４ Ultimately, a sense of nationalism is essential for most modern nations
Which of the following would best fill the gap at [ １３ ] in Paragraph４? Answer by filling in the corresponding slot under the number (１３) on the mark sheet.
Which of the following best explains why the author wrote the word in bold at [ １４ ] in Paragraph５? Answer by filling in the corresponding slot under the number (１４) on the mark sheet.
１ to emphasize a contrast
２ to emphasize degree
３ to emphasize surprise
４ to emphasize a change
Which of the following would best fill the gap at [ １５ ] in Paragraph６? Answer by filling in the corresponding slot under the number (１５) on the mark sheet.
１ all citizens to find common ground despite income inequalities
２ governments to resolve income inequality through arts funding.
３ minorities to feel unwelcome through funding their arts
４ only wealthier citizens to appreciate art
Which of the following would best fill the gap at [ １６ ] in Paragraph７? Answer by filling in the corresponding slot under the number (１６) on the mark sheet.
１ By contrast
Which of the following would best fill the gap at [ １７ ] in Paragraph８? Answer by filling in the corresponding slot under the number (１７) on the mark sheet.
１ As far as
２ However much
３ So much as
４ To the extent that
Look at the statements below. Then, based on BOTH articles, under the corresponding number (１８), (１９), and (２０), fill in:
Slot １, if only Y. Bothur would agree with that statement
Slot ２, if only Sue Portagig would agree with that statement
Slot ３, if both authors would agree with that statement
Slot ４, if neither author would agree with that statement
設問１８ Charitable giving can be sufficient to support the arts.
設問１９ Politicians have already influenced the direction of the arts.
設問２０ Art must make a profit in order to be valuable.
In which of the following pairs do both words have the same stress pattern? Answer by filling in the corresponding slot under the number (２１) on the mark sheet.
１ creative - creativity
２ declaration - declaring
３ economic - economy
４ exclusive - exclusion
５ subsidy - subsidiary
Which one of the following pairs (１~５) contains a noun which is pronounced differently from the verb? Answer by filling in the corresponding slot under the number (２２) on the mark sheet.
１ a benefit (n) – to benefit (vb)
２ a picture (n) - to picture (vb)
３ a promise (n) – to promise (vb)
４ an abuse (n) – to abuse (vb)
５ an interest (n) – to interest (vb)
Five of the following six pairs contain words that are pronounced identically. Which of the pairs contains words that are pronounced differently? Answer by filling in the corresponding slot under the number (２３) on the mark sheet.
１ berry - bury
２ freight - fright
３ isle - aisle
４ sewing – sowing
５ some - sum
６ thrown - throne