What is healthy aging? As members of the Healthy Aging Research Network, we have been researching factors affecting how long Americans will live, ways to stay as healthy as possible, and how best to make extended years quality years. Taking a comprehensive view, we defined healthy aging as “the development and maintenance of the best possible physical, mental (cognitive and emotional), spiritual, and social well-being and function in older adults.”
But achieving ( １ )this is something different altogether. We now know that healthy aging is the result of a combination of many factors-genetic makeups, cellular biology, lifestyle behaviors, personal perspectives about aging, social engagement, and environment. ( あ ) the accumulation of chronic diseases such as arthritis, dementia, heart disease, diabetes, and cancer, aging is not a "disease” but rather a lifelong process that extends from birth to death. ( ２ )Social and behavioral determinants are often stronger predictors of premature death than biology or quality of health care. Positive attitudes are extremely important because stereotypical negative views of aging can be health hazards themselves: research has shown that holding negative perceptions of aging can cut ７.５ years from one's life.
In the early 1900s, U.S. life expectancy at birth was under 50 years, and only a very small percentage of Americans lived to be 65. ( い ), people did not expect to live to old age, and the concept of healthy aging was unthinkable. Few people, including older adults, health care professionals, and policymakers, could imagine how much it would cost both individuals and society to treat elderly people with chronic conditions.
Now, aging is a global phenomenon, with ９６２ million people aged ６０ years and older around the world, including about ７８ million North Americans. With average life expectancies hovering around ８０ and the possibility of living to １２５ on the horizon, more attention is being focused on the factors that allow people to live into their ８０s and beyond, and the consequences of ( ３ )these extended lifespans.
( ４ )Population aging—older persons comprising an increasingly larger share of the population—is becoming the “new normal” throughout the world, and not only in the most developed countries. ( う ) Japan and European countries have the highest percentages of older people, population aging is actually progressing at higher rates in many developing regions such as Asia, Africa, and Latin America; this has a ( ５ )huge implications for the welfare of older populations. With rapid globalization and urbanization, families are often more mobile, social support networks are breaking down, health care systems are inadequate, and older people are often left in remote villages to take care of themselves and, in some cases, of young children left behind.
( え ) the increased proportion of older people in our society, many people still hold stereotypical views of aging, seeing it as synonymous with weakness, loneliness, and poverty. ( ６ )Similarly misleading are images of 90-year-olds running marathons: such extreme activities are impossible for most people in their 80s, 90s, or 100s, the age groups growing most rapidly. Healthy aging does not mean being able to achieve peak performance in multiple activities; ( お ), it simply means living life to the fullest.
Marcia Ory. As life expectancies rise, so are expectations for healthy aging. 2018.
下線部( １ )のthisは具体的にどのようなことを指すのか。日本語７５時以内で説明しなさい。
( あ )から( お )に入れる最適当な語句を選んで、その記号を書きなさい。
( あ )
2 As a result of
( い )
1 As a result
2 By contrast
( う )
2 In spite of
( え )
2 Because of
4 In spite of
( お )
下線部( ２ )を日本語に訳しなさい。
下線部( ３ )をextendedの意味が分かるようにして日本語５０時以内で説明しなさい。
下線部( ４ )を日本語に訳しなさい。
下線部( ５ )は具体的にはどのようなことを指しているのか、日本語１００字以内で説明しなさい。
下線部( ６ )で、筆者の考えと一致する一文を下記から選び、その記号を解答欄に記入しなさい。(マークシートでは問2の解答欄の右横にある。)
(A) It is a fact that aging makes people weaker, as well as lonelier and poorer, so it is clearly unreasonable to expect old people to be able to run marathons.
(B) Aging doesn't necessarily lead to weakness, loneliness, and poverty, so images of 90-year-olds running marathons are likely to become more common.
(C) Just as it is wrong to think that being old means being weak, lonely, and poor, so too is it wrong to think that old people should be able to do things like run marathons.
(D) Weakness, loneliness, and poverty go hand in hand with aging, so images of 90-year-olds running marathons are very unlikely to be seen.